Ashish Ranjan

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Scala Tutorial


  posted on Friday, October 09, 2015

Top Strategic IT Trends


  posted on Monday, June 08, 2015

Java back at the top


  posted on Monday, May 04, 2015



Hi 35.175.121.230



Many hardcore computer users might think themselves above learning new and old technologies & tricks, but there's always new things to learn that will help improve your skills. Here you will find at least one useful thing that you didn't know before.

Here's compiled some of the most handy computer technologies and tricks you might not be taking advantage of. My ultimate goal is to help you become more productive by shaving valuable seconds off your workflow. Of course, you can always pass along these tips to your not-so-savvy friends and family members to help them become better PC users as well.

The combination of using these tips and tricks on a daily basis will most certainly make your computer life much more enjoyable, or at least more practical.

Actually, these things helped and taught me a lot. Maybe, will help you too.






Magnet links in Firefox






Magnet links in Firefox

Magnet links in Firefox

Many bit torrent sites such as Pirate Bay now use Magnet links. If you click on a Magnet link in Firefox, you will get, "Firefox doesn't know how to open this address, because the protocol (magnet) isn't associated with any program."

Here is the solution

Firefox

about:config

enter handler.expose

right click - New - Boolean

Enter the preference name network.protocol-handler.expose.magnet

Set its value to false

Click on the magnet link and you should see Firefoxs Launch Application Choose Dialog

Select your torrent client.

Win key + R






Windows key + R and command line shortcuts

  • CONTROL: opens the control panel window
  • CONTROL ADMINTOOLS: opens the administrative tools
  • CONTROL KEYBOARD: opens keyboard properties
  • CONTROL COLOUR: opens display properties.Appearance tab
  • CONTROL FOLDERS: opens folder options
  • CONTROL FONTS: opens font policy management
  • CONTROL INTERNATIONAL or INTL.CPL: opens Regional and Language option
  • CONTROL MOUSE or MAIN.CPL: opens mouse properties
  • CONTROL USERPASSWORDS: opens User Accounts editor
  • CONTROL USERPASSWORDS2 or NETPLWIZ: User account access restrictions
  • CONTROL PRINTERS: opens faxes and printers available
  • APPWIZ.CPL: opens Add or Remove programs utility tool
  • OPTIONALFEATURES: opens Add or Remove Windows component utility
  • DESK.CPL: opens display properties. Themes tab
  • HDWWIZ.CPL: opens add hardware wizard
  • IRPROPS.CPL: infrared utility tool
  • JOY.CP: opens game controllers settings
  • MMSYS.CPL: opens Sound and Audio device Properties. Volume tab
  • SYSDM.CPL: opens System properties
  • TELEPHON.CPL: Opens phone and Modem options
  • TIMEDATE.CPL: Date and Time properties
  • WSCUI.CPL: opens Windows Security Center
  • ACCESS.CPL: opens Accessibility Options
  • WUAUCPL.CPL: opens Automatic Updates
  • POWERCFG.CPL: opens Power Options Properties
  • AZMAN.MSC: opens authorisation management utility tool
  • CERTMGR.MSC: opens certificate management tool
  • COMPMGMT.MSC: opens the Computer management tool
  • COMEXP.MSC or DCOMCNFG: opens the Computer Services management tool
  • DEVMGMT.MSC: opens Device Manager
  • EVENTVWR or EVENTVWR.MSC: opens Event Viewer
  • FSMGMT.MSC: opens Shared Folders
  • NAPCLCFG.MSC: NAP Client configuration utility tool
  • SERVICES.MSC: opens Service manager
  • TASKSCHD.MSC or CONTROL SCHEDTASKS: opens Schedule Tasks manager
  • GPEDIT.MSC: opens Group Policy utility tool
  • LUSRMGR.MSC: opens Local Users and Groups
  • SECPOL.MSC: opens local security settings
  • CIADV.MSC: opens indexing service
  • NTMSMGR.MSC: removable storage manager
  • NTMSOPRQ.MSC: removable storage operator requests
  • WMIMGMT.MSC: opens (WMI) Window Management Instrumentation
  • PERFMON or PERFMON.MSC: opens the Performance monitor
  • MMC /a: opens empty Console in admin mode 
  • MDSCHED: opens memory diagnostics tools
  • DXDIAG: opens DirectX diagnostics tools
  • ODBCAD32: opens ODBC Data source Administrator
  • REGEDIT or REGEDT32: opens Registry Editor
  • DRWTSN32: opens Dr. Watson
  • VERIFIER: opens Driver Verifier Manager
  • CLICONFG: opens SQL Server Client Network Utility
  • UTILMAN: opens Utility Manager
  • COLORCPL: opens color management
  • CREDWIZ: back up and recovery tool for user passwords
  • MOBSYNC: opens Synchronization center
  • MSCONFIG: opens System Configuration Utility
  • SYSEDIT: opens System Configuration Editor (careful while using this command)
  • SYSKEY: Windows Account Database Security management (careful while using this command)

Windows utility and applications

  • EPLORER: Opens windows Explorer
  • IEXPLORER: Opens Internet explorer
  • WAB: opens Contacts
  • CHARMAP: opens Character Map
  • WRITE: opens WordPad
  • NOTEPAD: opens Notepad
  • CALC: opens Calculator
  • CLIPBRD: opens Clipbook Viewer
  • WINCHAT: opens Microsoft Chat Interface
  • SOUNDRECORDER: opens sound recording tool
  • DVDPLAY: run CD or DVD
  • WMPLAYER: opens Windows Media Player
  • MOVIEMK: Opens untitled Windows Movie Maker
  • OSK: opens on-screen Keyboard
  • MAGNIFY: opens Magnifier
  • WINCAL: opens Calendar
  • DIALER: opens phone Dialer
  • EUDCEDIT: opens Private Character Editor
  • NDVOL: opens the mixer volume
  • RSTRUI : opens Tool System Restore (For Vista only)
  • %WINDIR%\SYSTEM32\RESTORE\rstrui.exe: opens Tool System Restore (for XP only).
  • MSINFO32: Opens the System Information
  • MRT : launches the utility removal of malware.
  • Taskmgr : Opens the Windows Task Manager
  • CMD: opens a command prompt
  • MIGWIZ: Opens the tool for transferring files and settings from Windows (Vista only)
  • Migwiz.exe: Opens the tool for transferring files and settings from Windows (for XP only)
  • SIDEBAR: Open the Windows (Vista only)
  • Sigverif : Opens the tool for verification of signatures of files
  • Winver : Opens the window for your Windows version
  • FSQUIRT: Bluetooth Transfer Wizard
  • IExpress opens the wizard for creating self-extracting archives. Tutorial HERE
  • MBLCTR: opens the mobility center (Windows Vista only)
  • MSRA : Opens the Windows Remote Assistance
  • Mstsc : opens the tool connection Remote Desktop
  • MSDT: opens the diagnostic tools and support Microsoft
  • WERCON: opens the reporting tool and solutions to problems (for Vista only)
  • WINDOWSANYTIMEUPGRADE: Enables the upgrade of Windows Vista
  • WINWORD : opens Word (if installed)
  • PRINTBRMUI : Opens migration wizard printer (Vista only)

Disk management

  • DISKMGMT.MSC: opens disk management utility
  • CLEANMGR: opens disk drive clean up utility
  • DFRG.MSC: opens disk defragmenter
  • CHKDSK: complete analysis of disk partition
  • DISKPART: disk partitioning tool

Connection management

  • IPCONFIG: list the configuration of IP addresses on your PC (for more information type IPCONFIG/? in the CMD menu)
  • INETCPL.CPL: opens internet properties
  • FIREWALL.CPL: opens windows firewall
  • NETSETUP.CPL: opens network setup wizard

Miscellaneous commands

  • JAVAWS: View the cover of JAVA software (if installed)
  • AC3FILTER.CPL: Opens the properties AC3 Filter (if installed)
  • FIREFOX: Mozilla launches Firefox (if installed)
  • NETPROJ: allow or not connecting to a network projector (For Vista only)
  • LOGOFF: closes the current session
  • SHUTDOWN: shut down Windows
  • SHUTDOWN-A: to interrupt Windows shutdown
  • %WINDIR% or %SYSTEMROOT%: opens the Windows installation
  • %PROGRAMFILES%: Opens the folder where you installed other programs (Program Files)
  • %USERPROFILE%: opens the profile of the user currently logged
  • %HOMEDRIVE%: opens the browser on the partition or the operating system is installed
  • %HOMEPATH%: opens the currently logged user C: \ Documents and Settings \ [username]
  • %TEMP%: opens the temporary folder
  • VSP1CLN: deletes the cache for installation of the service pack 1 for Vista
  • System File Checker (Requires Windows CD if the cache is not available):
  • SFC / scannow: immediately scans all system files and repairs damaged files
  • SFC / VERIFYONLY: scans only those files system
  • SFC / Scanfil = "name and file path": scans the specified file, and repaired if damaged
  • SFC / VERIFYFILE = "name and file path": Scans only the file specified
  • SFC / scanonce: scans the system files on the next restart
  • SFC / REVERT: return the initial configuration (For more information, type SFC /? In the command prompt CMD.

Resource Hacker






All About Resource Hacker in a Brief Tutorial, Ultimate Windows Customization Tool


Credit goes to vishal (www.askvg.com)

     NOTE: This tutorial has been featured by Microsoft, Wikipedia and official Resource Hacker website.
     AskVG.com was the first website posting this tutorial.

Resource Hacker is a small but excellent tool to modify system files like DLL, EXE, CPL, etc. You can even change Windows look by editing various Windows files and replacing their resources using Resource Hacker.
You can download it using following link:

     Download Link

This tutorial will help you in understanding this tool and will teach you how to use it. For your convenience, we have divided this tutorial in 2 parts:
  • PART 1: BASIC INFORMATION
  • PART 2: ADVANCED INFORMATION
Part 1 provides basic details like viewing or replacing existing resources in a file, etc. Part 2 covers some advance information for geeks, like adding new resources, using scripts, etc.

PART1 : BASIC INFORMATION


[Using Resource Hacker]
When you open a file in Resource Hacker, it shows various directories in left-side pane, like:

  • AVI - Contains AVI files
  • Cursor - Contains Cursor files
  • Bitmap - Contains BMP files
  • Icon - Contains Icons
  • Menu - Contains Menus
  • Dialog - Contains Dialog boxes
  • String Table - Contains Strings
  • Accelerators - Contains Shortcut keys
  • Version Info - Contains Version information of the file



[Viewing Resources]
You can view resource present in the file by expanding the directory given in left-side pane and clicking on the name of the resource. Each resource contains 3 important attributes:

  • Resource Type
  • Resource Name
  • Resource Language

[Changing Resources]
For Icons / Cursors / Bitmaps:
  1. First select the resource ( e.g. Bitmap -> 131 -> 1033 ).
  2. Now click on Action -> Replace Icon or Cursor or Bitmap....
  3. It'll open a new window, click on Open file with new Icon or Cursor or Bitmap button.
  4. Select the desired resource using OPEN dialog box, click on Open button and then click on Replace button.
For Other Resources like AVI:
  1. Click on Action -> Replace Other Resource....
  2. It'll open a new window, click on Open file with new resource button.
  3. Select the file and click on Open button.
  4. Now you'll need to provide following required information for the resource, which we mentioned earlier:
    • Resource Type
    • Resource Name
    • Resource Language



    Resource Type: Mention type of the resource, e.g. if you are replacing AVI file, mention the type as AVI
    Resource Name: Provide the same name of the existing resource which you want to replace
    Resource Language: Provide language code for the resource, e.g. 1033 for English. You can check existing resource's language code.
  5. At last click on Replace button.
  6. [For Menus / Strings / Dialogs]
    To change any String, Menu or Dialog box, Select the desired resource, e.g. String Table -> 4 -> 1033, make your changes and at last click on Compile Script button.



    It'll immediately compile the script. If you made any mistake while modifying the resource, it'll generate error message so that you can fix it.

PART2 : ADVANCED INFORMATION


[Adding New Resources]
Adding New Bitmaps / Icons / Cursors / AVIs:
  1. Click on Action -> Add a new Resource....
  2. Now click on Open file with new resource button.
  3. Select the desired resource and click on Open button.
  4. Give Resource Type, Name and Language as mentioned earlier. But keep in mind that Resource Name should not match with any existing resources name.
  5. At last click on Add Resource button.
Adding New Menus:
Go to desired menu, e.g. Menu -> 215 -> 1033. Now add a new line anywhere inside POPUP "" using following format:


    MENUITEM "Custom_String", 12345, MFT_STRING, MFS_GRAYED | MFS_DEFAULT


Where:

  • "Custom_String" is the actual text which you want to show in menu.
  • 12345 is the identifier. It must be different from existing menuitems.
  • MFS_GRAYED disables the menuitem. You can change it to MFS_ENABLED if you want to show your menuitem enabled.
  • MFS_DEFAULT shows your menuitem in BOLD. You can omit it.
  • You can also add a new attribute in the code MFS_HILITE which automatically selects your menuitem.

In fact you can only add following new line in code:


    MENUITEM "Custom_String", 12345


And Resource Hacker will automatically insert other remaining values as mentioned above.
[Inserting Newly Added Resources in Dialog Boxes]
Once you finish adding new Icons / Bitmaps / AVIs, you can insert them in any dialog box so that you can show in various Windows dialog boxes like RUN, Progress Dialog box, etc.
  1. Go to the desired dialog box, e.g. Dialog -> 1020 -> 1033
  2. Right-click in the dialog box and select Insert Control option.
  3. It'll open a new window. You'll see many controls in the new window, like BITMAP, LABEL, ICON, BUTTON, SysAnimate32 (for AVIs), etc.
  4. Click on any desired control, e.g. to insert a Bitmap, click on the BITMAP control or to insert an AVI, click on SysAnimate32 control.

    PS: You can also insert Date/Time in dialog box using SysDateTimePick32 control.
  5. Don't forget to fill the Caption entry. You need to enter the Resource Name in Caption textbox, e.g. if you have added a Bitmap and set its Resource Name as 401, then give the same 401 in Caption textbox.

    PS: For AVI Control ( SysAnimate32 ), you'll need to append # in Caption value, e.g if the AVI name is 144, then put #144 in Caption textbox.
  6. At last click on OK button & then Compile the script.
  7. If you want to change the position of the new control in dialog box, simply click on the control and drag it to your desired location or you can also use arrow keys to move it.

Using Scripts in Resource Hacker


We can also run Resource Hacker using Command Prompt and can use scripts to automate lots of repeatative tasks to save our time.
You can use scripts in 2 ways:

  • Single Command
  • Multiple Commands


[Single Command]
You can use following commands in Command Prompt to perform actions using Resource Hacker:

      -add ExeFileName, ResultingFileName, ResourceAddress, ResourceType, ResourceName,
      -addskip ExeFileName, ResultingFileName, ResourceAddress, ResourceType, ResourceName,
      -addoverwrite ExeFileName, ResultingFileName, ResourceAddress, ResourceType, ResourceName,
      -modify ExeFileName, ResultingFileName, ResourceAddress, ResourceType, ResourceName,
      -extract ExeFileName, ResourceAddress, ResourceType, ResourceName,
      -delete ExeFileName, ResultingFileName, ResourceType, ResourceName,

Where:

  • ExeFileName - Source file name
  • ResultingFileName - Output file name
  • ResourceAddress - Resource location (e.g. Bitmap path stored in your hard disk)
  • ResourceType - Resource type (e.g. Bitmap, AVI, etc.)
  • ResourceName - Resource name (e.g. 131, 1020, etc.)

Example:

ResHacker.exe -addoverwrite explorer.exe, explorer1.exe, MyImage.bmp , bitmap, 143,

[Multiple Commands]
You can also run a series of commands using script. First you'll need to create the script file using Notepad and then you can run it using following command:

ResHacker.exe -script ScriptFileName

Where, ScriptFileName is the name of the script file which you created in Notepad.
Following is the required format of the script file:

      [FILENAMES]
      Exe=
      SaveAs=
      Log=
      [COMMANDS]
      -addoverwrite ResourceAddress, ResourceType, ResourceName

Where:
EXE= contains source file name
SaveAs= contains output file name
Log= contains LOG file name which will store a detailed log of the operation
[COMMANDS] section contains the command-set which we want to perform on the source file.
PS: You can omit the LOG= entry in script file. In this case, Resource Hacker will automatically create a LOG file with the name "ResHacker.log".
NOTE 1: If you are facing problems while saving a file after editing in resource hacker, then make sure you have disabled WFP (Windows File Protection) service using "WFP Patcher" or use "Replacer" to replace the file.
NOTE 2: If you get "Cannot create file" error message while saving the file, please check following tutorial:
How to Fix "Cannot Create File" Error Message While Saving Files in Resource Hacker?
That's all for now.

How to code?






How to Code

Not knowing how to program will soon become synonymous to being illiterate. It doesn’t seem this way yet, but this age is coming. If you don’t know how to program, you're merely consuming the whole world around you, which is programmed. It’s important to know how to navigate this new world by being able to tell the computer what to do. If you want to start empowering yourself, here are some resources.
  1. Codeacademy
    Codeacademy


  2. Lynda
    Lynda


  3. Udacity
    Udacity


  4. Coursera
    Coursera


  5. W3Schools
    W3Schools


  6. Apple Developer Program
    AppleDeveloper


  7. Developer.Android.com
    AndroidDeveloper


  8. Developers.Google.com
    GoogleDeveloper


  9. MSDN.Microsoft.com
    MSDNMicrosoft


  10. Instructables
    MSDNMicrosoft


    Summary

    If you want to learn some new skills, then spend some time looking through these websites that teach coding and more. You will no doubt find a mine of useful information and this can set you on a new path.

altcodes






255 Keyboard 'alt' codes

alt codes are symbols that are not on keyboard but can be produced by pressing a simple alt key along with some number of codes from "numpad". Pressing these two keys simultaneously gives you a symbol. Here is a fun list of 255 keyboards codes that display fun little symbols. They all have to do with the alt key, so check it out and see the fun. To use them just hold down the alt key and press the specified combination of numbers on your "numpad".

VLC Media Player






VLC media player

VLC Media Player

bitstobytes






Bits and Bytes Namings

1 Bit = Binary Digit

8 Bits = 1 Byte

1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte

1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte

1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte

1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte

1024 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte

1024 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte

1024 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte

1024 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte

1024Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte

1024 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte

1024 Geopbyte=1 Saganbyte

1024 Saganbyte=1 Pijabyte

Alphabyte = 1024 Pijabyte

Kryatbyte = 1024 Alphabyte

Amosbyte = 1024 Kryatbyte

Pectrolbyte = 1024 Amosbyte

Bolgerbyte = 1024 Pectrolbyte

Sambobyte = 1024 Bolgerbyte

Quesabyte = 1024 Sambobyte

Kinsabyte = 1024 Quesabyte

Rutherbyte = 1024 Kinsabyte

Dubnibyte = 1024 Rutherbyte

Seaborgbyte = 1024 Dubnibyte

Bohrbyte = 1024 Seaborgbyte

Hassiubyte = 1024 Bohrbyte

Meitnerbyte = 1024 Hassiubyte

Darmstadbyte = 1024 Meitnerbyte

Roentbyte = 1024 Darmstadbyte

Coperbyte = 1024 Roentbyte

Application Ports






Application Ports

This table lists the ports used by some of the more popular applications.

Application Port Protocol Notes
HTTP 80, 8080 TCP Hyptertext Transfer Protocol. Used by web browsers such as Internet Explorer, Firefox and Opera.
HTTPS 443 TCP, UDP Used for secure web browsing.
IMAP 143 TCP Email applications including Outlook, Outlook Express, Eudora and Thunderbird.
FTP 20 to 21 TCP File Transfer Protocol.
SSH 22 TCP Secure Shell protocol. Provides a secure session when logging into a remote machine.
Telnet 23 TCP Used for remote server administration.
DNS 53 TCP, UDP Domain Name System protocol for converting domain names to IP addresses.
NNTP 119 TCP Network News Transfer Protocol, used for internet discussion groups.
NETBIOS 137 to 139 TCP, UDP NETBIOS is used for file transfers between Windows machines.
SNMP 161 to 162 UDP Simple Network Management Protocol. Used by network administrators for remote statistics and information gathering.
LDAP 389 TCP, UDP Lightwight Directory Services Protocol, used for accessing centralized databases of users and computers.
Microsoft SQL Server 1433 to 1434 TCP, UDP Database application.
MySQL 3306 TCP, UDP Database application.
Oracle SQL 1521, 1522, 1525, 1529 TCP Database application.
Microsoft Terminal Server / Citrix ICA 1494, 1604 UDP Remote desktop application.
ICQ 4000 UDP Instant messenger.
Yahoo Messenger 5010 TCP Instant messenger.
AOL Instant Messenger 5190 TCP, UDP Instant messenger.
PCAnywhere 5632 TCP, UDP Remote desktop application.
VNC 5800, 5900 TCP Virtual Network Computer, allows remote desktop functionality.
Kerberos 88 TCP, UDP Used for user authentication, mainly on Windows systems.
POP3 110 TCP Post Office Protocool. For receiving email.
SMTP 25 TCP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, used for sending email.
RIP 520 UDP Routing Information Protocol, part of the core internet infrastructure.
Microsoft PPTP 1723 TCP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, a VPN implementation.
Windows Media Streaming 1755, 7007 TCP, UDP
Age of Empires 2300 to 2400, 6073, 47624 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Call of Duty 20500, 20510, 28960 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Counter-Strike 1200, 27000 to 27015, 27020 to 27039 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Doom 3 27650, 27666 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Everquest 1024, 6000, 7000 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Far Cry 49001 to 49002, 49124 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
FIFA 3658, 10400 to 10499 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Microsoft Flight Simulator 2300 to 2400, 6073, 23456, 47624 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Gamespy Arcade 3783, 6515, 6500, 6667, 13139, 27900, 28900, 29900, 29901 TCP, UDP Game browser.
Gnutella 6346 TCP, UDP P2P file sharing application.
GTA2 2300 to 2400, 47624 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Half Life 2 1200, 27000 to 27015, 27020 to 27039 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
iTunes 3689 TCP, UDP Music sharing application.
MSN Messenger 1863, 5190, 6891 to 6901 TCP, UDP Instant messenger.
NBA Live 3658, 9570, 18699 to 28600 UDP Multiplayer game.
Need For Speed 80, 1030, 3658, 3659, 9442, 13505, 18210, 18215, 30900 to 30999 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Net2Phone 6801 UDP VoIP application.
NetFone 10200 TCP VoIP application.
Neverwinter Nights 5120 to 5300, 6500, 6667, 27900, 28900 UDP Multiplayer game.
NHL 3658, 10300, 13505 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
No One Lives Forever 2300 to 2400, 7000 to 10000, 27888 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
PhoneFree 1034 to 1035, 2644, 8000, 9900 to 9901 TCP, UDP VoIP application.
Quake 27650, 27910, 27950, 27952, 27960, 27965 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Quicktime 6970 to 7000 TCP, UDP Video streaming application.
Rainbow Six 80, 2346 to 2348, 6667, 7777 to 7787, 8777 to 8787, 40000 to 42999, 44000, 45000 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
RealVNC 5900 TCP, UDP Remote desktop application.
Remote Desktop 3389 TCP, UDP Generic remote desktop protocol.
Shiva VPN 2233 TCP, UDP Tunneling application.
Soldier of Fortune 28910 to 28915, 20100 to 20112 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Speak Freely 2074 to 2076 UDP VoIP application.
Starcraft 6112 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
TeamSpeak 8767, 14534, 51234 TCP, UDP Online voice chat.
Tiger Woods PGA Tour 80, 443, 9570, 13505, 20803, 20809, 32768 to 65535 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Tight VNC 5800, 5500, 5900 TCP Remote desktop application.
Tribes 28000, 28001 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Ultima Online 5001 to 5010, 7775 to 7777, 7875, 8800 to 8900, 9999 TCP Multiplayer game.
Unreal Tournament 7777 to 7788, 8080, 8777, 9777, 27900, 42292 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
Vonage 5061, 10000 to 20000 UDP VoIP application.
VPhone 11675 TCP, UDP VoIP application.
Warcraft 6112 to 6119 TCP, UDP Multiplayer game.
WebcamXP 8080, 8090 TCP Video sharing application.
Winamp Streaming 8000 to 8001 TCP Audio streaming application.
Wingate VPN 809 TCP, UDP Tunneling application.
World of Warcraft 3724, 6112, 6881 to 6999 TCP Multiplayer game.
Worms Armageddon 80, 6667, 17010 to 17012 TCP Multiplayer game.
XBox 80, 1900, 3390, 3074, 3776, 3932, 5555, 7777 TCP, UDP Game appliance.
Azureus 6881 to 6889 TCP, UDP P2P file sharing application.
DC++ 411, 1025 to 32000 TCP, UDP P2P file sharing application.
Limewire 6346 to 6347 TCP, UDP P2P file sharing application.

ASCII Control Symbols






ASCII Control Symbols

Windows Keyboard Shortcuts






Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard Shorcuts (Microsoft Windows)

1. CTRL+C (Copy)
2. CTRL+X (Cut)
3. CTRL+V (Paste)
4. CTRL+Z (Undo)
5. DELETE (Delete)
6. SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
7. CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
8. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
9. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
10. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
11. CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
12. CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
13. CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
14. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document) 15. CTRL+A (Select all)
16. F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
17. ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
18. ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
19. ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
20. ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
21. CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents opensimultaneou sly)
22. ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
23. ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
24. F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
25. F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
26. SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
27. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
28. CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
29. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu) Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
30. F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
31. RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
32. LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
33. F5 key (Update the active window)
34. BACKSPACE (View the folder onelevel up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
35. ESC (Cancel the current task)
36. SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROMinto the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)


Dialog Box - Keyboard Shortcuts

1. CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
2. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
3. TAB (Move forward through the options)
4. SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
5. ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
6. ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
7. SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
8. Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
9. F1 key (Display Help)
10. F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
11. BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

Microsoft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts

1. Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
2. Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
3. Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
4. Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
5. Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restorethe minimized windows)
6. Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
7. Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
8. CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
9. Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
10. Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
11. Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
12. Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
13. Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
14. Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
15. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
16. Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
17. SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
18. NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
19. Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
20. Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
21. END (Display the bottom of the active window)
22. HOME (Display the top of the active window)
23. NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
24. NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
25. NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)
26. LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
27. RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)


Shortcut Keys for Character Map

After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:
1. RIGHT ARROW (Move to the rightor to the beginning of the next line)
2. LEFT ARROW (Move to the left orto the end of the previous line)
3. UP ARROW (Move up one row)
4. DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
5. PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
6. PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
7. HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
8. END (Move to the end of the line)
9. CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
10. CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
11. SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)


Microsoft Management Console (MMC)

Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
2. CTRL+N (Open a new console)
3. CTRL+S (Save the open console)
4. CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
5. CTRL+W (Open a new window)
6. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
7. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)
8. ALT+F4 (Close the console)
9. ALT+A (Display the Action menu)
10. ALT+V (Display the View menu)
11. ALT+F (Display the File menu)
12. ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)


MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts

1. CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
2. ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)
3. SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
4. F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
5. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
6. CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
7. CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
8. ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for theselected item)
9. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
10. CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)


Remote Desktop Connection Navigation

1. CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)
2. ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
3. ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
4. ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
5. ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
6. CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
7. ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
8. CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
9. CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place asnapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboardand provide the same functionality aspressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)


Microsoft Internet Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts

1. CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
2. CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
3. CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
4. CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
5. CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
6. CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
7. CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
8. CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box,the same as CTRL+L)
9. CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
10. CTRL+R (Update the current Web )

Google Search






Google Search


Millions of people use Google search every day for a variety of reasons. Students use it for school, business people use it for research, and millions more use it for entertainment. Did you know that you may not be using Google search to its full potential?
Here are 20 tips and tricks to maximize your search efficiency.
  1. Use the tabs

    The first tip is to use the tabs in Google search. On the top of every search are a number of tabs. Usually you’ll see Web, Image, News, and More. Using these tabs, you can help define what kind of search you need to do. If you need images, use the Image tab. If you are looking for a recent news article, use the News tab. It’s rudimentary and most people use the tabs already. If you are not, then it’s highly recommended to get associated with them. They can cut search times dramatically if utilized properly.

  2. Use quotes

    When searching for something specific, try using quotes to minimize the guesswork for Google search. When you put your search parameters in quotes, it tells the search engine to search for the whole phrase. For instance, if you search for Puppy Dog Sweaters, the engine will search for content that contains those three words in any order. However, if you search "Puppy Dog Sweaters", it will search for that phrase exactly as you typed it. This can help locate specific information that may be buried under other content if not sorted out correctly.

  3. Use a hyphen to exclude words

    Sometimes you may find yourself searching for a word with an ambiguous meaning. An example is Mustang. When you Google search for Mustang, you may get results for both the car made by Ford or the horse. If you want to cut one out, use the hyphen to tell the engine to ignore content with one of the other. See the example below.

    Mustang -cars

    This tells the search engine to search for mustangs but to remove any results that have the word "car" in it. It can be wildly helpful when finding information about something without getting information about something else.

  4. Use a colon to search specific sites

    There may be an instance where you need to Google search for articles or content on a certain website. The syntax is very simple and we'll show you below.

    Sidney Crosby site:nhl.com

    This will search for all content about famous hockey player Sidney Crosby, but only on NHL.com. All other search results will be removed. If you need to find specific content on a particular site, this is the shortcut you can use.

  5. Find a page that links to another page

    This Google search tip is a little obscure. Instead of searching for a specific page, you're searching for a page that links to a specific page. Think about it this way. If you want to see who cited a New York Times article on their site, you would use this trick to find all the sites that link to it. The syntax is below.

    link:nytimes.com

    That will return all pages that link to the New York Times official website. The URL on the right side can be practically anything. Be aware, though, that the more specific it is, the fewer results you'll get. We know not a lot of people will likely use this Google search trick, but it could be very useful for some.

  6. Use the asterisk wildcard

    The asterisk wildcard is one of the most useful ones on the list. Here's how it works. When you use an asterisk in a search term on Google search, it will leave a placeholder that may be automatically filled by the search engine later. This is a brilliant way to find song lyrics if you don’t know all the words. Let’s look at the syntax.

    "Come * right now * me"

    To you or me, that may look like nonsense. However, Google search will search for that phrase knowing that the asterisks can be any word. More often than not, you'll find they are lyrics to The Beatles song "Come Together" and that's what the search will tell you.

  7. Find sites that are similar to other sites

    This is a unique one that could be used by practically everyone if they knew it existed. Let's say you have a favorite website. It can be anything. However, that website is getting a little bit boring and you want to find other websites like it. You would use this trick. Below is the syntax.

    related:amazon.com

    If you search that above, you won't find a link to Amazon. Instead, you’ll find links to online stores like Amazon. Sites like Barnes & Noble, Best Buy, and others that sell physical items online. It's a powerful Google search tool that can help you find new sites to browse.

  8. Use Google search to do math

    As a college student, I can attest that I use this one rather frequently. Google search can actually do math for you. This is a rather complex one to describe because it can be used in so many ways. You can ask it basic questions or some more difficult ones. It is important to note that it won't solve all math problems, but it will solve a good number of them. Here are a couple of examples of the syntax.

    8 * 5 + 5
    Planck's Consant

    If you search the first one, it'll return 45. It will also show a calculator that you can use to find answers to more questions. This is handy if you need to do some quick math but don't want to do it in your head. If you search the second term, it will return the number value of Planck's Constant. So it can do math, but it can also help you solve math problems by showing values for known mathematical terms.

  9. Search for multiple words at once

    Google search is flexible. It knows you may not find what you want by searching only a single word or phrase. Thus, it lets you search for multiples. By using this trick, you can search for one word or phrase along with a second word or phrase. This can help narrow down your search to help you find exactly what you’re looking for. Here is the syntax.

    "Best ways to prepare for a job interview" OR "How to prepare for a job interview"

    By searching that, you will search both phrases. Remember the quotes tip above? It’s being used here as well. In this instance, these two exact phrases will be searched. It can be done by word too, like the example below.

    chocolate OR white chocolate

    This will search for pages that have either chocolate or white chocolate!

  10. Search a range of numbers

    Searching for a range of numbers is another tip we don't anticipate a lot of people using. The people that do use it, though, will probably use it quite a bit. People interested in money or statistics will find this tip particularly useful. Essentially, you use two dots and a number to let Google search know you’re looking for a specific range of numbers. Like the syntax below.

    What teams have won the Stanley Cup ..2004
    41..43

    In the first instance, the search will toss back the team that won the Stanley Cup in 2004. The two dots with only one number will tell the search that you don't need anything before or after 2004. This can help narrow down searches to a specific number to improve search results. In the second, Google will search for the numbers 41, 42, and 43. It is obscure, but wildly useful if you happen to need to search for numbers like this.

  11. Keep it simple

    Now we're getting into the general tips. Google search knows how to search for a lot of things. What this means is you don't need to be too specific. If you need a pizza place nearby, use this to search.

    Pizza places nearby

    Google search will grab your location and deliver a variety of results about pizza places that are near you.

  12. Gradually add search terms

    There will come a time when Google search doesn't shovel out the results you expect. In this instance, keeping it simple may not be the best option. As Google itself suggests, the best method is to start with something simple then gradually get more complicated. See the example below.

    First try: job interviews
    Second try: prepare for job interviews
    Third try: how to prepare for a job interview

    This will gradually refine the search to bring you fewer, more targeted terms. The reason you don’t go straight from the first try to the third try is because you may miss what you’re looking for by skipping the second step. Millions of websites phrase the same information in a number of different ways; using this technique lets you search as many of them as possible to find the best info.

  13. Use words that websites would use

    This is a very important one. When people use Google search to hunt the web, they generally search for things using the same language that they would use for speaking. Unfortunately, websites don't say things the way people do; instead, they try to use language that sounds professional. Let's look at some examples.

    "I have a flat tire" could be replaced by "repair a flat tire." "My head hurts" could be replaced by "headache relief."

    The list goes on and on. When searching, try to use terminology you would find on a professional website. This will help you get more reliable results.

  14. Use important words only

    The way Google search works is to take what you search for and match it with keywords in online content. When you search for too many words, it may limit your results. That means it may actually take you longer to find what you're looking for. Thus, it is apropos to use only the important words when searching for something. Let’s see an example.

    Don't use: Where can I find a Chinese restaurant that delivers.
    Instead try: Chinese restaurants nearby.
    Or: Chinese restaurants near me.

    Doing this can help Google find what you need without all the clutter. So remember, keep it simple and use important words only.

  15. Google search has shortcuts

    A number of commands can be entered to give you instantaneous results. Like the math example above, Google can immediately give you the information you need that is displayed right at the top of the search results. This can save time and effort so you don’t have to click a bunch of bothersome links. Here are a few examples of some commands you can enter into Google.

    Weather *zip code* – This will show you the weather in the given zip code. You can also use town and city names instead of area codes, but it may not be as accurate if there are multiple area codes in the city.
    What is *celebrity name* Bacon Number – This is a fun little one that will tell you how many connections any given celebrity has to famed actor Kevin Bacon. The popular joke, Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon, is that no actor is more than 6 connections away from Kevin Bacon. Mark Zuckerberg has a Bacon Number of 3.
    The math example posted above is another one.
    What is the definition of *word* or Define: *word* – This will display the definition of a word.
    Time *place* – This will display the time in whatever place you type in.
    You can check any stock by typing its ticker name into Google. If you search for GOOG, it will check the stock prices for Google.

    These quick commands can take a web search that is usually multiple clicks and condense it into a single search. This is very helpful for information you need repeatedly.

  16. Spelling doesn’t necessarily matter

    Google search has gotten a lot smarter over the years. These days, you don't even need to spell words correctly. As long as it's pretty close, Google can usually figure out what it means. Here are some examples.

    If you search "Nver Gna Gve Yo Up" Google will automatically assume you mean to search for "Never Gonna Give You Up." If by chance your misspelling was intentional, Google gives you the option to search for the misspelled term instead.

    This trick is great if you happen to forget how to spell something or are not altogether sure how something is spelled. It can also be helpful when searching for obscure words. This applies to capitalization and grammar as well.

  17. Use descriptive words

    Pretty much everything can be described in multiple ways. Take our namesake, the "life hack." The terminology "hack" refers to a computer programmer breaking security on a network or system. However, when used in conjunction with the word "life", it alters the meaning to tips and tricks people can use to improve their lives. If you have trouble finding what you’re searching for, keep in mind that people may search or define what you need in a different way than you do.

    You may search "How to install drivers in Ubunut?" When you really mean "Troubleshoot driver problems Ubuntu."

    There really isn't a good specific example for this one. If you search for something and you can't find an answer, try asking the same question using different words and see if that helps the results.

  18. Find a specific file

    An often forgotten feature of Google search is the ability to search for a specific file or file type. This can be infinitely useful if you need a specific PDF or PowerPoint file that you previously viewed or need to use for another project. The syntax is quite simple.

    *Search term here* filetype:pdf

    In the above example, you simply replace the search term with whatever you're searching for. Then use the filetype command and enter the extension of any file type you can think of. This can mostly be useful for scholarly purposes, but business presentations and other assorted presentations can benefit from this kind of search as well.

  19. Money and unit conversions

    Google search can quickly and accurately convert both measurement units and currency value. There are a variety of uses for this, like checking to see the conversion rate between two currencies. If you happen to be a math student, you can use it to convert from feet to meters or from ounces to liters. Here's how to do it.

    miles to km – This will convert miles to kilometers. You can put numbers in front to convert a certain number. Like "10 miles to km" will show you how many kilometers are in 10 miles. USD to British Pound Sterling – This will convert a US dollar to British pounds. Like the measurements above, you can add numbers to find exact conversions for a certain amount of money.

    It's true that this tip is geared toward math students and international business people. However, you'd be surprised how often these tips are used by regular people.

  20. Track your packages

    Our last trick is to use Google search to find out where your packages are. You can enter any UPS, USPS, or Fedex tracking number directly into the Google search bar, and it’ll show you the tracking information about your package. This is much easier than going to the specific sites, waiting for them to load, then searching for your packages there. No examples are really needed for this one. Just type your tracking number in and see where your package is.

  21. Google Search wrap-up

    Google search is a very powerful search tool. Using the tips outlined above, you can find anything and everything you could ever need on the World Wide Web. Whether it's avoiding Wikipedia for a school essay project, finding the latest stock prices, or even finding song lyrics, there is a way to make Google search work for you.

    Aero and application shortcuts






    Aero and Application Shortcuts

    Taskbar Modifiers

    Shift+Click Open a new instance of the program
    Ctrl+Click Cycle between windows in a group
    Middle Click Open a new instance of the program
    Ctrl+Shift+Click Open a new instance of the program as Administrator
    Shift+Right-Click Show window menu

    Managing Windows

    Alt+F4 Close the active window
    Alt+Tab Switch to previous active window
    Alt+Esc Cycle through all open windows
    Win+Tab Flip 3D
    Ctrl+Win+Tab Persistent Flip 3D
    Win+T Cycle through applications on taskbar (showing its live preview)
    Win+M Minimize all open windows
    Win+Shift+M Undo all window minimization
    Win+D Toggle showing the desktop
    Win+↑ Maximize the current window
    Win+↓ If the current window is maximized, restore it; if the current window is restored, minimize it
    Win+← Dock the current window to the left half of the screen
    Win+→ Dock the current window to the right half of the screen
    Win+Shift+← Move current window to the left monitor (with dual monitors)
    Win+Shift+→ Move current window to the right monitor (with dual monitors)
    Win+Home Minimize all but the current window
    Win+Space Peek at the desktop
    Win+[Plus sign] Zoom in
    Win+[Minus sign] Zoom out

    Starting Programs 

    Win+1 Open the first program on your Quick Launch bar
    Win+2 Open the second program on your Quick Launch bar
    Win+n Open the nth program on your Quick Launch bar
    Win+U Open the ease of access center
    Win+F Open the search window
    Win+X Open the Mobility Center
    Win+E Open Explorer
    Win+R Open the Run window 
    Win+B Move focus to notification tray (the right-most portion of the taskbar)
    Win+P Open the projection menu (generally used for laptops connected to projectors)
    Win+Pause Open the System Properties portion from the Control Panel
    Ctrl+Shift+Esc Open Windows Task Manager

    Logging In And Out 

    Win, →, Enter Shutdown
    Win, →, →, R Restart
    Win, →, →, S Sleep
    Win, →, →, W Switch Users
    Win+L Locks computer

    Viewing Folders With Explorer 

    Alt+← Go back
    Alt+→ Go forward
    Alt+↑ Go up a directory
    Alt+D Move focus to address bar
    Alt+D, Tab Move focus to search bar
    Alt+Enter Open the Properties window of the current selection
    Ctrl+Mousewheel Change the view type (extra large, small, list view, detail, etc.)
    Alt+P Show/hide the preview pane

    Win 7 Tricks, Tips and Secrets






    Windows 7 Tips, Tricks and Secrets


    Whether you've just bought a second-hand PC running Windows 7 or you've been using it for a while, there are bound to be things you didn't know you could do. Whether it's tweaks to get the desktop the way you want it, tips for troubleshooting or ways to squeeze more performance from Windows 7, everything is covered.

    We've updated our popular Windows 7 tips article with a load of new ones, including how to recover and reset your system, how to tweak your screen resolution and the legibility of text, play music on a network of PCs, and more.

    Read on for over 90 tips to help you get the best from Windows 7.

    1. Problem Steps Recorder

    As the local PC guru you're probably very used to friends and family asking for help with their computer problems, yet having no idea how to clearly describe what's going on. It's frustrating, but Microsoft feels your pain, and Windows 7 will include an excellent new solution in the Problem Steps Recorder.
    When any app starts misbehaving under Windows 7 then all your friends need do is click Start, type PSR and press Enter, then click Start Record. If they then work through whatever they're doing then the Problem Steps Recorder will record every click and keypress, take screen grabs, and package everything up into a single zipped MHTML file when they're finished, ready for emailing to you. It's quick, easy and effective, and will save you hours of troubleshooting time.

    2. Burn images

    Windows 7 finally introduces a feature that other operating systems have had for years - the ability to burn ISO images to CDs or DVDs. And it couldn't be much easier to use. Just double-click the ISO image, choose the drive with the blank disc, click Burn and watch as your disc is created.

    3. Create and mount VHD files

    Microsoft's Virtual PC creates its virtual machine hard drives in VHD files, and Windows 7 can now mount these directly so you can access them in the host system. Click Start, type diskmgmt.msc and press Enter, then click Action > Attach VHD and choose the file you'd like to mount. It will then appear as a virtual drive in Explorer and can be accessed, copied or written just like any other drive.
    Click Action > Create VHD and you can now create a new virtual drive of your own (right-click it, select Initialise Disk, and after it's set up right-click the unallocated space and select New Simple Volume to set this up). Again, you'll be left with a virtual drive that behaves just like any other, where you can drag and drop files, install programs, test partitioning software or do whatever you like. But it's actually just this VHD file on your real hard drive which you can easily back up or share with others. Right-click the disk (that's the left-hand label that says "Disk 2" or whatever) and select Detach VHD to remove it.
    The command line DISKPART utility has also been upgraded with tools to detach a VHD file, and an EXPAND command to increase a virtual disk's maximum size. Don't play around with this unless you know what you're doing, though - it's all too easy to trash your system.

    4. Troubleshoot problems

    If some part of Windows 7 is behaving strangely, and you don't know why, then click Control Panel > Find and fix problems (or 'Troubleshooting') to access the new troubleshooting packs. These are simple wizards that will resolve common problems, check your settings, clean up your system and more.

    5. Startup repair

    If you've downloaded Windows 7 (and even if you haven't) it's a good idea to create a system repair disc straight away in case you run into problems booting the OS later on. Click Start > Maintenance > Create a System Repair Disc, and let Windows 7 build a bootable emergency disc. If the worst does happen then it could be the only way to get your PC running again.

    6. Take control

    Tired of the kids installing dubious software or running applications you'd rather they left alone? AppLocker is a new Windows 7 feature that ensures users can only run the programs you specify. Don't worry, that's easier to set up than it sounds: you can create a rule to allow everything signed by a particular publisher, so choose Microsoft, say, and that one rule will let you run all signed Microsoft applications. Launch GPEDIT.MSC and go to Computer Configuration > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Application Control Policies > AppLocker to get a feel for how this works.

    7. Calculate more


    At first glance the Windows 7 calculator looks just like Vista's version, but explore the Mode menu and you'll see powerful new Statistics and Programmer views. And if you're clueless about bitwise manipulation, then try the Options menu instead. This offers many different unit conversions (length, weight, volume and more), date calculations (how many days between two dates?), and spreadsheet-type templates to help you calculate vehicle mileage, mortgage rates and more.
    Don't take any Windows 7 applet at face value, then - there are some very powerful new features hidden in the background. Be sure to explore every option in all Windows applets to ensure you don't miss anything important.
    The new Calculator is packed with useful features and functionality

    8. Switch to a projector

    Windows 7 now provides a standard way to switch your display from one monitor to another, or a projector - just press Win+P or run DisplaySwitch.exe and choose your preferred display. (This will have no effect if you've only one display connected.)

    9. Get a power efficiency report

    If you have a laptop, you can use the efficiency calculator to get Windows 7 to generate loads of useful information about its power consumption. Used in the right way, this can help you make huge gains in terms of battery life and performance. To do this you must open a command prompt as an administrator by typing 'cmd' in Start Search, and when the cmd icon appears, right-click it and choose Run as administrator.
    Then at the command line, just type in 'powercfg -energy' (without quotes) and hit Return, and Windows 7 will scan your system looking for ways to improve power efficiency. It will then publish the results in an HTML file, usually in the System32 folder. Just follow the path it gives you to find your report.

    10. Understanding System Restore

    Using System Restore in previous versions of Windows has been something of a gamble. There's no way of telling which applications or drivers it might affect - you just have to try it and see.
    Windows 7 is different. Right-click Computer, select Properties > System Protection > System Restore > Next, and choose the restore point you'd like to use. Click the new button to 'Scan for affected programs' and Windows will tell you which (if any) programs and drivers will be deleted or recovered by selecting this restore point. (Read our full Windows 7 System Restore tutorial.)

    11. Set the time zone

    System administrators will appreciate the new command line tzutil.exe utility, which lets you set a PC's time zone from scripts. If you wanted to set a PC to Greenwich Mean Time, for instance, you'd use the command

    tzutil /s "gmt standard time"

    The command "tzutil /g" displays the current time zone, "tzutil /l" lists all possible time zones, and "tzutil /?" displays details on how the command works.

    12. Easily set screen resolution

    Choosing a new screen resolution used to involve locating and browsing through the Display Properties applet. Windows 7 made this far simpler, though - just right-click an empty part of the desktop, select Screen Resolution and you'll immediately see the appropriate options.

    13. Calibrate your screen

    The colours you see on your screen will vary depending on your monitor, graphics cards settings, lighting and more, yet most people use the same default Windows colour profile. And that means a digital photo you think looks perfect might appear very poor to everybody else. Fortunately Windows 7 now provides a Display Colour Calibration Wizard that helps you properly set up your brightness, contrast and colour settings, and a ClearType tuner to ensure text is crisp and sharp. Click Start, type DCCW and press Enter to give it a try.

    14. Clean up Live Essentials

    Installing Windows Live Essentials will get you the new versions of Mail, Movie Maker, Photo Gallery and others - great. Unfortunately it also includes other components that may be unnecessary, but if you like to keep a clean system then these can be quickly removed.
    If you left the default Set Your Search Provider option selected during installation, for instance, Windows Live will install Choice Guard, a tool to set your browser home page and search engine, and prevent other programs from changing them. If this causes problems later, or you just decide you don't need it, then Choice Guard may be removed by clicking Start, typing msiexec /x {F0E12BBA-AD66-4022-A453-A1C8A0C4D570} and pressing [Enter].
    Windows Live Essentials also adds an ActiveX Control to help upload your files to Windows Live SkyDrive, as well as the Windows Live Sign-in Assistant, which makes it easier to manage and switch between multiple Windows Live accounts. If you're sure you'll never need either then remove them with the Control Panel Uninstall a Program applet.

    15. Add network support

    By default Windows Live MovieMaker won't let you import files over a network, but a quick Registry tweak will change this. Run REGEDIT, browse to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows Live\Movie Maker, add a DWORD value called AllowNetworkFiles and set it to 1 to add network support.

    16. Activate XP mode

    If you've got old but important software that no longer runs under Windows 7, then you could try using XP Mode, a virtual copy of XP that runs in a window on your Windows 7 desktop. This only works with Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, or Ultimate. And your system will need to have hardware virtualisation (AMD-V or Intel VT) built in and turned on, too (check your Bios to make sure).
    An alternative is to use VirtualBox, a free virtualisation tool that doesn't insist on hardware support, but you will need to find a licensed copy of XP (or whatever other Windows version your software requires) for its virtual machine.

    17. Enable virtual Wi-Fi


    Windows 7 includes a little-known new feature called Virtual Wi-Fi, which effectively turns your PC or laptop into a software-based router. Any other Wi-Fi-enabled devices within range - a desktop, laptop, an iPod perhaps - will see you as a new network and, once logged on, immediately be able to share your internet connection.
    This will only work if your wireless adapter driver supports it, though, and not all do. Check with your adapter manufacturer and make sure you've installed the very latest drivers to give you the best chance.
    Once you have driver support then the easiest approach is to get a network tool that can set up virtual Wi-Fi for you. Virtual Router (below) is free, easy to use and should have you sharing your internet connection very quickly.

    If you don't mind working with the command line, though, maybe setting up some batch files or scripts, then it's not that difficult to set this up manually.

    18. Recover locked-up apps


    If an application locks up under a previous version of Windows then there was nothing you could do about it. A new Windows 7 option, however, can not only explain the problem, but may get your program working again without any loss of data.
    When the lockup occurs, click Start, type RESMON and click the RESMON.EXE link to launch the Resource Monitor.
    Find your frozen process in the CPU pane (it should be highlighted in red), right-click it and select Analyze Wait Chain.
    If you see at least two processes in the list, then the lowest, at the end of the tree, is the one holding up your program. If it's not a vital Windows component, or anything else critical, then save any work in other open applications, check the box next to this process, click End Process, and your locked-up program will often spring back to life.

    19. Fault-Tolerant Help

    Windows 7 includes a new feature called the Fault Tolerant Help (FTH), a clever technology that looks out for unstable processes, detects those that may be crashing due to memory issues, and applies several real-time fixes to try and help. If these work, that's fine - if not, the fixes will be undone and they won't be applied to that process again.
    While this is very good in theory, it can leave you confused as some applications crash, then start working (sometimes) for no apparent reason. So if you'd like to check if the FTH is running on your PC, launch REGEDIT, and go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\FTH - any program currently being protected by the FTH will be listed in the State key.
    Experienced users may also try tweaking the FTH settings to catch more problems, and perhaps improve system stability. A post on Microsoft's Ask The Performance Team blog (bit.ly/d1JStu) explains what the various FTH Registry keys mean.

    20. Control devices and printers

    Device Manager is a powerful tool for managing hardware, but it's also rather technical and intimidating, which is probably why Windows 7 has introduced a more basic alternative in the Devices and Printers applet.
    The first improvement is purely visual, with lengthy and cryptic device names replaced by large icons for major hardware items only (monitor, mouse, hard drive, printer and so on).
    The new applet can also save you time, though, by providing a quick and easy way to access relevant functions for each device. If you've got some printer-related issue, say, right-clicking your printer icon displays a list of useful options - See What's Printing, Printer Preferences, Printer Properties, Delete Printer Queue and more - and all you have to do is select whatever you need.

    21. Automatically switch your default printer

    Windows 7's location-aware printing allows the operating system to automatically switch your default printer as you move from one network to another.
    To set this up, first click Start, type Devices, and click the Devices and Printers link.
    Select a printer and click Manage Default Printers (this is only visible on a mobile device, like a laptop - you won't see it on a PC).
    Choose the Change My Default Printer When I Change Networks option, select a network, the default printer you'd like to use, and click Add.
    Repeat the process for other networks available, and pick a default printer for each one.
    And now, as you connect to a new network, Windows 7 will check this list and set the default printer to the one that you've defined.

    22. Explore God Mode

    Windows 7 has changed Control Panel a little, but it's still too difficult to locate all the applets and options that you might need. God Mode, however, while not being particularly godlike, does offer an easier way to access everything you could want from a single folder.
    To try this out, create a new folder and rename it to:

    Edit:: God Mode.{ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C}
    The first part, "Everything" will be the folder name, and can be whatever you want: "Super Control Panel", "Advanced", "God Mode" if you prefer.
    The extension, ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C, must be entered exactly as it is here, though, including the curly brackets. When you press [Enter] this part of the name will disappear, and double-clicking the new folder will display shortcuts to functions in the Action Centre, the Network and Sharing Centre, Power options, troubleshooting tools, user accounts and others - more than 260 options in total.

    23. Right-click everything

    At first glance Windows 7 bears a striking resemblance to Vista, but there's an easy way to begin spotting the differences - just right-click things.
    Right-click an empty part of the desktop, for instance, and you'll find a menu entry to set your screen resolution. No need to go browsing through the display settings any more.
    Right-click the Explorer icon on the taskbar for speedy access to common system folders: Documents, Pictures, the Windows folder, and more.
    And if you don't plan on using Internet Explorer then you probably won't want its icon permanently displayed on the taskbar. Right-click the icon, select 'Unpin this program from the taskbar', then go install Firefox, instead.

    24. Display the old taskbar button context menu

    Right-click a taskbar button, though, and you'll now see its jumplist menu. That's a useful new feature, but not much help if you want to access the minimise, maximise, or move options that used to be available. Fortunately there's an easy way to get the old context menu back - just hold down Shift as you right-click the taskbar button.

    25. Desktop slideshow

    Windows 7 comes with some very attractive new wallpapers, and it's not always easy to decide which one you like the best. So why not let choose a few, and let Windows display them all in a desktop slideshow? Right-click an empty part of the desktop, select Personalise > Desktop Background, then hold down Ctrl as you click on the images you like. Choose how often you'd like the images to be changed (anything from daily to once every 10 seconds), select Shuffle if you'd like the backgrounds to appear in a random order, then click Save Changes and enjoy the show.
    Select multiple background images and Windows will cycle through them

    26. RSS-powered wallpaper

    And if a slideshow based on your standard wallpaper isn't enough, then you can always install a theme which extracts images from an RSS feed, and so ensures a regularly updated stream of top quality backgrounds (if you choose wisely, anyway). To see what's available, right-click an empty part of your desktop, select Personalise > Get more themes online, and click RSS Dynamic Themes in the left-hand list.
    Another option is to produce an RSS-based feed of your very own. Long Zheng has created a few sample themes to illustrate how it works. Jamie Thompson takes this even further, with a theme that always displays the latest BBC news and weather on your desktop. And MakeUseOf have a quick and easy tutorial showing how RSS can get you those gorgeous Bing photographs as your wallpaper. Or you can watch our custom theme video tutorial.

    27. Customise the log-on screen

    Changing the Windows log-on screen used to involve some complicated and potentially dangerous hacks, but not any more - Windows 7 makes it easy.
    First, browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Authentication\LogonUI\Background in REGEDIT, double-click the DWORD key called OEMBackground (not there? Create it) and set its value to 1.
    Now find a background image you'd like to use. Make sure it's less than 256KB in size, and matches the aspect ratio of your screen as it'll be stretched to fit.
    Next, copy that image into the %windir%\system32\oobe\info\backgrounds folder (create the info\backgrounds folders if they don't exist). Rename the image to backgroundDefault.jpg, reboot, and you should now have a custom log-on image.
    Alternatively, use a free tweaking tool to handle everything for you. Logon Changer displays a preview so you can see how the log-on screen will look without rebooting, while the Logon Screen Rotator accepts multiple images and will display a different one every time you log on.

    28. Disable Windows Features

    Windows 7 enables you to remove many more Windows features than ever before: Internet Explorer, Media Player, Windows Search, its indexing service, Windows Gadgets and more. This is something that you need to do cautiously, if at all (since removing something like Media Player will break many programs which rely on it), but can be useful if you're looking to create a very simple, slimmed-down system.
    Click Start, type OptionalFeatures and press Enter to launch the Windows Features dialog. Clear the checkbox to the left of any features that are surplus to requirements, and click OK to remove them.

    29. Recover screen space

    The new Windows 7 taskbar acts as one big quick launch toolbar that can hold whatever program shortcuts you like (just right-click one and select Pin To Taskbar). And that's fine, except it does consume a little more screen real estate than we'd like. Shrink it to a more manageable size by right-clicking the Start orb, then Properties > Taskbar > Use small icons > OK.

    30. Make text easier to read

    Equipping your PC with an ultra high resolution displays sounds like a great idea, but it can mean text becomes very small, and as a result some people manually reduce their screen resolution to compensate. Unfortunately this then introduces another problem: if you run LCDs below their native resolution then text (and other objects) will inevitably become fuzzy.
    The solution? Leave your LCD at its maximum resolution, but scale text and other objects up so they become easier to read, while also remaining sharp. You could do this in Vista, but Windows 7 now makes the process even easier. Click Start, type "DPIScaling" and press Enter, select the size increase you need - 125% or 150% - then click Apply and restart to see the results.
    Resizing your text can make it sharper and easier to read


    31. Enjoy a retro taskbar

    Windows 7 now combines taskbar buttons in a way that saves space, but also makes it more difficult to tell at a glance whether an icon represents a running application or a shortcut. If you prefer a more traditional approach, then right-click the taskbar, select Properties, and set Taskbar Buttons to Combine When Taskbar is Full. You'll now get a clear and separate button for each running application, making them much easier to identify.

    32. Remove taskbar buttons

    One problem with the previous tip is the buttons will gobble up valuable taskbar real estate, but you can reduce the impact of this by removing their text captions. Launch REGEDIT, browse to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop\WindowMetrics, add a string called MinWidth, set it to 54, and reboot to see the results.

    33. Restore the Quick Launch Toolbar

    If you're unhappy with the new taskbar, even after shrinking it, then it only takes a moment to restore the old Quick Launch Toolbar.
    Right-click the taskbar, choose Toolbars > New Toolbar, type "%UserProfile%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch" (less the quotes) into the Folder box and click Select Folder.
    Now right-click the taskbar, clear 'Lock the taskbar', and you should see the Quick Launch toolbar, probably to the right. Right-click its divider, clear Show Text and Show Title to minimise the space it takes up. Complete the job by right-clicking the bar and selecting View > Small Icons for the true retro look.

    34. Custom power switch

    By default, Windows 7 displays a plain text 'Shut down' button on the Start menu, but it only takes a moment to change this action to something else. If you reboot your PC a few times every day then that might make more sense as a default action: right-click the Start orb, select Properties and set the 'Power boot action' to 'Restart' to make it happen.

    35. Auto arrange your desktop

    If your Windows 7 desktop has icons scattered everywhere then you could right-click it and select View > Auto arrange, just as in Vista. But a simpler solution is just to press and hold down F5, and Windows will automatically arrange its icons for you.

    36. Disable smart window arrangement

    Windows 7 features interesting new ways to intelligently arrange your windows, so that (for example) if you drag a window to the top of the screen then it will maximise. We like the new system, but if you find it distracting then it's easily disabled. Run REGEDIT, go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop, set WindowArrangementActive to 0, reboot, and your windows will behave just as they always did.

    37. Browse your tasks

    If you prefer the keyboard over the mouse, you will love browsing the taskbar using this nifty shortcut. Press Windows and T, and you move the focus to the left-most icon on the taskbar. Then use your arrow keys to change the focus to other icons, and you get a live preview of every window.

    38. Display your drives

    Click Computer in Windows 7 and you might see a strange lack of drives, but don't panic, it's just Microsoft trying to be helpful: drives like memory card readers are no longer displayed if they're empty. We think it's an improvement, but if you disagree then it's easy to get your empty drives back. Launch Explorer, click Tools > Folder Options > View and clear 'Hide empty drives in the computer folder'.

    39. See more detail

    The new and improved Windows 7 magnifier offers a much easier way to zoom in on any area of the screen. Launch it and you can now define a scale factor and docking position, and once activated it can track your keyboard focus around the screen. Press Tab as you move around a dialog box, say, and it'll automatically zoom in on the currently active control.

    40. Extend your jumplists

    By default a jumplist will display up to 10 items, but it can often be useful to extend this and add a few more. Right-click Start, select Properties > Customize and set Number of Recent Items to Display in Jump Lists to the figure you need.

    41. Disable Aero Peek
    Hover your mouse cursor over the bottom right hand corner of the screen and Windows 7 will hide open windows, showing you the desktop. Seems like a good idea to us, but if the feature gets in your way then it's easy to turn off. Simply right-click the Start orb, select Properties > Taskbar and clear the box marked Use Aero Peek to Preview the Desktop.

    42. Pin a drive to the taskbar

    The taskbar isn't just for apps and documents. With just a few seconds work you can pin drive icons there, too.
    Right-click an empty part of the desktop, select New > Text File, and rename the file to drive.exe. Drag and drop this onto your taskbar, then delete the original file.
    Right-click your new "drive.exe" taskbar button, then right-click its file name and select Properties. Change the contents of both the Target and Start In boxes to point at the drive or folder of your choice, perhaps click Change Icon to choose an appropriate drive icon, and you're done - that drive or folder is now available at a click.


    43. Expand your taskbar previews

    Move your mouse cursor over a Windows 7 taskbar button and you'll see a small preview of the application window. To make this larger, launch REGEDIT, browse to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Taskband, right-click in the right hand pane and create a new DWORD value called MinThumbSizePx. Double-click this, choose the Decimal option, set the value to 350 and reboot to see the results. Tweak the value again to fine-tune the results, or delete it to return to the default thumbnail size.

    44. Play To

    Windows Media Player is great for accessing local music and videos, but that's just the start. You can also browse the media libraries on other PCs across your network, and the Play To feature means it's now even possible to 'push' media from one system, and have it automatically begin playing on another.
    To set this up, first launch Media Player, click Stream > Turn on media streaming, then click Turn On Media Streaming in the Options dialog.
    Click Stream, select Allow remote control of my player > Allow remote control on this network, then click Stream > Automatically allow devices to play my media.
    Repeat this on any network PC which you'd like to include, then right-click any file within Media Player, and select the Play To menu. Choose a remote computer from the list, and the media file will be pushed across the network, automatically playing on the other system.

    45. Customise UAC

    Windows Vista's User Account Control was a good idea in practice, but poor implementation put many people off - it raised far too many alerts. Fortunately Windows 7 displays less warnings by default, and lets you further fine-tune UAC to suit your preferred balance between security and a pop-up free life (Start > Control Panel > Change User Account Control Settings).

    46. Use Sticky Notes

    The Sticky Notes app is both simpler and more useful in Windows 7. Launch StikyNot.exe and you can type notes at the keyboard; right-click a note to change its colour; click the + sign on the note title bar to add another note; and click a note and press Alt + 4 to close the note windows (your notes are automatically saved).

    47. Open folder in new process

    By default Windows 7 opens folders in the same process. This saves system resources, but means one folder crash can bring down the entire shell. If your system seems unstable, or you're doing something in Explorer that regularly seems to causes crashes, then open Computer, hold down Shift, right-click on your drive and select Open in New Process. The folder will now be launched in a separate process, and so a crash is less likely to affect anything else.

    48. Watch more videos

    Windows Media Player is a powerful program, but it still won't play all the audio and video files you'll find online. Fortunately Windows 7 codecs pack supports just about every file and compression type there is, and installing it should get your troublesome multimedia files playing again.

    49. Preview fonts

    Open the Fonts window in Windows XP and Vista and you'll see the font names, probably with icons to tell you whether they're TrueType or OpenType, but that's about it. Windows 7 sees some useful font-related improvements.
    Open the new fonts window and you'll find a little preview for every font, giving you a quick idea of how they're going to look.
    The tedium of scrolling through multiple entries for each family, like Times New Roman, Times New Roman Bold, Times New Roman Bold Italic and so on, has finally ended. There's now just a single entry for each font (though you can still see all other members of the family).
    And there's a new OpenType font, Gabriola, added to the mix. It's an attractive script font, well worth a try the next time you need a stylish document that stands out from the crowd.

    50. New WordPad formats

    By default WordPad will save documents in Rich Text Format, just as before. But browse the Save As Format list and you'll see you can also save (or open, actually) files in the Office 2007 .docx or OpenDocument .odt formats.

    51. Protect your data

    USB flash drives are convenient, portable, and very easy to lose. Which is a problem, especially if they're carrying sensitive data. Fortunately Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise have the solution: encrypt your documents with an extension of Microsoft's BitLocker technology, and only someone with the password will be able to access it. Right-click your USB flash drive, select Turn on BitLocker and follow the instructions to protect your private files.
    Your USB flash drives can easily be encrypted with BitLocker


    52. Minimise quickly with shake

    If you have multiple windows open on your desktop and things are getting too cluttered, it used to be a time-consuming process to close them all down. In Windows 7 you can use the Aero Shake feature to minimise everything in seconds, using a cool mouse gesture. Grab the title bar of the window you wish to keep open and give it a shake, and rejoice in a clear desktop area.

    53. Configure your favourite music

    The Windows 7 Media Centre now comes with an option to play your favourite music, which by default creates a changing list of songs based on your ratings, how often you play them, and when they were added (it's assumed you'll prefer songs you've added in the last 30 days). If this doesn't work then you can tweak how Media Centre decides what a favourite tune is- click Tasks > Settings > Music > Favourite Music and configure the program to suit your needs.

    54. Customise System Restore

    There was very little you could do to configure System Restore in Vista, but Windows 7 improves the situation with a couple of useful setup options.
    Click the Start orb, right-click Computer and select Properties > System Protection > Configure, and set the Max Usage value to a size that suits your needs (larger to hold more restore points, smaller to save disk space).
    And if you don't need System Restore to save Windows settings then choose the option to Only Restore Previous Versions of Files. Windows 7 won't back up your Registry, which means you'll squeeze more restore points and file backups into the available disk space. System Restore is much less likely to get an unbootable PC working again, though, so use this trick at your own risk.

    55. Run As

    Hold down Shift, right-click any program shortcut, and you'll see an option to run the program as a different user, handy if you're logged in to the kids' limited account and need to run something with higher privileges. This isn't really a new feature - Windows XP had a Run As option that did the same thing - but Microsoft stripped it out of Vista, so it's good to see it's had a change of heart.

    56. Search privacy

    By default Windows 7 will remember your PC search queries, and display the most recent examples when searching in Windows Explorer. If you're sharing a PC and don't want everyone to see your searches, then launch REGEDIT and browse to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Explorer. Right-click in the right-hand pane, create a new DWORD value called DisableSearchBoxSuggestions, set it to 1, and this will take effect after you next reboot.

    57. Tweak PC volume

    By default Windows 7 will now automatically reduce the volume of your PC's sounds whenever it detects you're making or receiving PC-based phone calls. If this proves annoying (or maybe you'd like it to turn off other sounds altogether) then you can easily change the settings accordingly. Just right-click the speaker icon in your taskbar, select Sounds > Communications, and tell Windows what you'd like it to do.

    58. Rearrange the system tray

    With Windows 7 we finally see system tray icons behave in a similar way to everything else on the taskbar. So if you want to rearrange them, then go right ahead, just drag and drop them into the order you like. You can even move important icons outside of the tray, drop them onto the desktop, then put them back when you no longer need to keep an eye on them.

    59. Extend your battery life

    Windows 7 includes new power options that will help to improve your notebook's battery life. To see them, click Start, type Power Options and click the Power Options link, then click Change Plan Settings for your current plan and select Change Advanced Settings. Expand Multimedia Settings, for instance, and you'll see a new Playing Video setting that can be set to optimise power savings rather than performance. Browse through the other settings and ensure they're set up to suit your needs.

    60. Write crash dump files

    Windows 7 won't create memory.dmp crash files if you've less than 25GB of free hard drive space, annoying if you've installed the Windows debugging tools and want to diagnose your crashes. You can turn this feature off, though: browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\CrashControl, create a new DWORD value called AlwaysKeepMemoryDump, set it to 1, and the crash dump file will now always be saved.

    61. Protect your data

    If you have confidential files in a particular folder or two, and would like to keep them away from other network users, then right-click the folder, select Share With > Nobody, and they'll be made private, for your eyes only (or your user account, anyway).

    62. Reorganise the taskbar

    Windows 7 taskbar buttons are now movable - feel free to drag, drop and otherwise reorganise them to suit your needs. And then remember that each button can be launched by holding with the Windows key and pressing 1 to activate the first, 2 the second and so on, up to 0 for the tenth.

    63. Repair your PC

    If Windows 7 won't start, you may not need an installation or repair disc any more, as the repair environment is now usually installed on your hard drive. Press [F8] as your PC starts, and if you see a Repair Your Computer option, choose that to see the full range of Windows 7 recovery tools.


    64. Reset and repair

    Troubleshooting Windows problems can be complicated, since there are so many settings and options to consider. Windows 8 has simplified this with its own Repair and Refresh tool, but if you're not in the mood to upgrade just yet, there's always Tweaking.com's Windows Repair.
    This compact program is able to resolve Registry and file permission problems, fix IE and the Windows firewall, repair icons, get Windows Update working again and a whole lot more. And in theory it's quite simple, too - just select the area you want to repair and it'll be fixed in a click or two.
    Windows Repair has worked well for us in the past, but needs to be treated with care. Applying fixes you don't need can cause more problems than you solve. Select only options you're sure are appropriate, and don't run the program at all unless your PC has a full system backup available.
    A helpful wizard walks you through every step of the repair process

    65. ReadyBoost revamped

    If you were unimpressed by ReadyBoost in Vista, it may be worth trying the technology again under Windows 7. The operating system now allows you to combine multiple USB drives, each with larger caches, to deliver an extra speed boost.

    66. Fixing Windows 7 N

    If you have Windows 7 N then this means you'll be missing key multimedia applications, like Media Player, Media Centre, DVD Maker and more. But that's not all. You also won't have some of the subsystems required by third-party apps like Nero MultiMedia Suite, which means that even if they install, you could have problems getting them to work correctly.
    Fortunately there's an easy fix, though, as the missing components are available in the form of Microsoft's Windows Media Pack. If you're currently having media-related issues on a Windows 7 N installation, grab your copy from support.microsoft.com/kb/968211.

    67. Search Control Panel

    Navigating the Control Panel has never been the easiest of processes, however Windows 7 has tried to improve the situation by equipping the Control Panel window with its own search box. And, just as you might think, if you enter part of an applet name - "Display", say - then matching applets will be listed right away.
    You don't have to be quite so specific about what you type, though, because Search generally does a very good job of figuring out what's relevant. Entering "hacker" displays the Firewall applet, for instance, while typing "virus" provides a link to Windows Defender. It's all very helpful, but keep in mind that you don't have to launch Control Panel to get these results: simply type your key words into the Start Menu search box and the same links will appear.

    68. Repair libraries

    Windows 7's new Libraries are a great way to simplify file management, when they're all working properly. Unfortunately, if their settings become damaged then they might not always display the files you expect, or you might not even be able to access them at all. If the problems survive a reboot then right-click the Libraries folder, select Restore Default Libraries, and your system should be back in full working order. (You'll lose any library customisations you made, though, so try this only as a last resort.)

    69. Add network folders to libraries

    Windows 7 Libraries are all about making it easy to view content that's scattered across many folders, and even hard drives, but there are limitations. And in particular, Explorer won't enable you to add network folders.
    If this is a problem, though, all you have to do is grab a copy of the Win7 Library Tool, a simple free program that enables you to freely add any network location to whatever library you like.

    70. Hide unused libraries

    If you don't use some Windows 7 libraries then it's generally a good idea to hide them, since this recovers valuable space in the left-hand Explorer navigation pane and cuts down on scrolling. Just right-click an unwanted library and select Don't Show in Navigation Pane to hide it. To bring it back, click Libraries, right-click whatever you need and choose Show in Navigation Pane.

    71. Find bottlenecks

    From what we've seen so far Windows 7 is already performing better than Vista, but if your PC seems sluggish then it's now much easier to uncover the bottleneck. Click Start, type RESMON and press Enter to launch the Resource Monitor, then click the CPU, Memory, Disk or Network tabs. Windows 7 will immediately show which processes are hogging the most system resources.
    The CPU view is particularly useful, and provides something like a more powerful version of Task Manager. If a program has locked up, for example, then right-click its name in the list and select Analyze Process. Windows will then try to tell you why it's hanging - the program might be waiting for another process, perhaps - which could give you the information you need to fix the problem.
    Resource monitor keeps a careful eye on exactly how your PC is being used

    72. Keyboard shortcuts

    Windows 7 supports several useful new keyboard shortcuts.
    Alt+P:: Display/ hide the Explorer preview pane
    Windows Logo+G:: Display gadgets in front of other windows
    Windows Logo++ (plus key):: Zoom in, where appropriate
    Windows Logo+- (minus key):: Zoom out, where appropriate
    Windows Logo+Up:: Maximise the current window
    Windows Logo+Down:: Minimise the current window
    Windows Logo+Left:: Snap to the left hand side of the screen
    Windows Logo+Right:: Snap to the right hand side of the screen
    Windows Logo+Home:: Minimise/ restore everything except the current window

    73. Drag and drop to the command line

    When working at the command line you'll often need to access files, which usually means typing lengthy paths and hoping you've got them right. But Windows 7 offers an easier way. Simply drag and drop the file onto your command window and the full path will appear, complete with quotes and ready to be used.
    This feature isn't entirely new: you could do this in Windows XP, too, but drag and drop support disappeared in Vista. There does seem to be a new Windows 7 complication, though, in that it only seems to work when you open the command prompt as a regular user. Run cmd.exe as an administrator and, while it accepts dropped files, the path doesn't appear.

    74. Customise your jumplists

    Right-click an icon on your taskbar, perhaps Notepad, and you'll see a jumplist menu that provides easy access to the documents you've been working on recently. But maybe there's another document that you'd like to be always available? Then drag and drop it onto the taskbar icon, and it'll be pinned to the top of the jumplist for easier access. Click the pin to the right of the file name, or right-click it and select Unpin From This List when you need to remove it.

    75. Faster program launches

    If you've launched one instance of a program but want to start another, then don't work your way back through the Start menu. It's much quicker to just hold down Shift and click on the program's icon (or middle-click it), and Windows 7 will start a new instance for you.

    76. Speedy video access

    Want faster access to your Videos folder? Windows 7 now lets you add it to the Start menu. Just right-click the Start orb, click Properties > Start Menu > Customize, and set the Videos option to Display As a Link. If you've a TV tuner that works with Windows 7 then you'll appreciate the new option to display the Recorded TV folder on the Start menu, too.

    77. Mount ISO images

    Windows 7 introduced the ability to burn an ISO image to disc, but it doesn't provide any way to browse that image beforehand - which is why you need a copy of WinCDEmu. This simple tool mounts ISO and other image files as virtual drives, enabling you to access them in Explorer just as though they were physical discs.
    Once you've set up WinCDEmu, it will instantly mount any image file with a double-click


    78. Run web searches

    The Windows 7 search tool can now be easily extended to search online resources, just as long as someone creates an appropriate search connector. To add Flickr support, say, visit I Started Something, click Download the Connector, choose the Open option and watch as it's downloaded (the file is tiny, it'll only take a moment). A Flickr Search option will be added to your Searches folder, and you'll be able to search images from your desktop.
    A multitude of other ready-made searches, such as Google and YouTube, can be downloaded from the windowsclub.com website.

    79. Schedule Media Centre downloads

    You can now tell Windows Media Centre to download data at a specific time, perhaps overnight, a useful way to prevent it sapping your bandwidth for the rest of the day. Launch Media Centre, go to Tasks > Settings > General > Automatic Download Options, and set the download start and stop times that you'd like it to use.

    80. Multi-threaded Robocopies

    Anyone who's ever used the excellent command-line robocopy tool will appreciate the new switches introduced with Windows 7. Our favourite, /MT, can improve speed by carrying out multi-threaded copies with the number of threads you specify (you can have up to 128, though that might be going a little too far). Enter robocopy /? at a command line for the full details.

    81. Load IE faster

    Some Internet Explorer add-ons can take a while to start, dragging down the browser's performance, but at least IE8 can now point a finger at the worst resource hogs. Click Tools > Manage Add-ons, check the Load Time in the right-hand column, and you'll immediately see which browser extensions are slowing you down.

    82. An Alt+Tab alternative

    You want to access one of the five Explorer windows you have open, but there are so many other programs running that Alt+Tab makes it hard to pick out what you need. The solution? Hold down the Ctrl key while you click on the Explorer icon. Windows 7 will then cycle through the Explorer windows only, a much quicker way to locate the right one. And of course this works with any application that has multiple windows open.

    83. Block annoying alerts

    Just like Vista, Windows 7 will display a suitably stern warning if it thinks your antivirus, firewall or other security settings are incorrect.
    But unlike Vista, if you disagree then you can now turn off alerts on individual topics. If you no longer want to see warnings just because you've dared to turn off the Windows firewall, say, then click Control Panel > System and Security > Action Centre > Change Action Centre settings, clear the Network Firewall box and click OK.

    84. Parallel defrags

    The standard Windows 7 defragger offers a little more control than we saw in Vista, and the command line version also has some interesting new features. The /r switch will defrag multiple drives in parallel, for instance (they'll obviously need to be physically separate drives for this to be useful). The /h switch runs the defrag at a higher than normal priority, and the /u switch provides regular progress reports so you can see exactly what's going on. Enter the command
    defrag /c /h /u /r
    in a command window to speedily defrag a system with multiple drives, or enter defrag /? to view the new options for yourself.

    85. Fix Explorer

    The Windows 7 Explorer has a couple of potential annoyances. Launching Computer will no longer display system folders like Control Panel or Recycle Bin, for instance. And if you're drilling down through a complicated folder structure in the right-hand pane of Explorer, the left-hand tree won't always expand to follow what you're doing, which can make it more difficult to see exactly where you are. Fortunately there's a quick fix: click Organize > Folder and Search Options, check Show All Folders and Automatically Expand To Current Folder, and click OK.

    86. Faster file handing

    If you hold down Shift while right-clicking a file in Explorer, then you'll find the Send To file now includes all your main user folders: Contacts, Documents, Downloads, Music and more. Choose any of these and your file will be moved there immediately.

    87. Create folder favourites

    If you're regularly working on the same folder in Explorer then select it in the right-hand page, right-click Favourites on the left-hand menu, and select Add to Favourites. It'll then appear at the bottom of the favourites list for easy one-click access later.

    88. Disable hibernation

    By default Windows 7 will permanently consume a chunk of your hard drive with its hibernation file, but if you never use sleep, and always turn your PC off, then this will never actually be used. To disable hibernation and recover a little hard drive space, launch REGEDIT, browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Power, then set both HibernateEnabled and HiberFileSizePerfect to zero.

    89. Create a new folder shortcut

    When you need to create a new folder in Windows 7 Explorer, don't reach for the mouse. Just press Ctrl+Shift+N to create the folder in the active Explorer window, then type its name as usual.

    90. Open a jumplist

    Most people right-click a Windows taskbar icon to view its jumplist. You can also hold the left mouse button over the icon, though, then drag upwards to reveal the jumplist and choose the option you need, a more natural action that should be just a little faster.


    91. Search quickly

    If you'd like to search for something in an Explorer window then there's no need to use the mouse. Simply press [F3] to move the focus to the search box, enter your keyword and press [Enter] to run the search.

    92. Search file contents

    There's no obvious way in the Windows interface to search the contents of files that haven't been indexed, but all you need to do is start your search with the "content:" search filter. So entering "content:Microsoft", for instance, will find all documents (whether they're actually indexed or not) that contain the word Microsoft.

    93. Close in a click

    Hover your mouse cursor over a Windows taskbar button will display a preview thumbnail of that application window. You don't need that app any more? Then middle-click the thumbnail to close it down.

    94. Leave the Homegroup

    Homegroups are an easy way to network Windows 7 PCs, but if you don't use the feature then turning it off can save you a few system resources.
    Click Start, type Homegroup, and click Choose Homegroup and Sharing Options. Click Leave the Homegroup > Leave the Homegroup > Finish.
    Now click Start, type services.msc and press [Enter] to launch the Services Control Panel applet.
    Find and double-click both the HomeGroup Listener and HomeGroup Provider service, clicking Stop and setting Startup Type to Disabled in each case, and the services won't be launched when you need reboot.

    List of Programming Languages






    List of Programming Langages

    A


    B

    C

    D

    • D
    • DASL (Datapoint's Advanced Systems Language)
    • DASL (Distributed Application Specification Language)
    • Dart
    • DataFlex

    E

    F

    G

    H

    I

    J

    K

    L

    M

    N

    O

    P

    Q

    R

    S

    T

    U

    V


    W

    X

    Y

    Z

    List of HTTP Status Codes






    List of HTTP Status Codes

    The following is a list of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) response status codes. This includes codes from IETF internet standards as well as other IETF RFCs, other specifications and some additional commonly used codes. The first digit of the status code specifies one of five classes of response; the bare minimum for an HTTP client is that it recognises these five classes. The phrases used are the standard examples, but any human-readable alternative can be provided. Unless otherwise stated, the status code is part of the HTTP/1.1 standard (RFC 7231).

    The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) maintains the official registry of HTTP status codes.

    Microsoft IIS sometimes uses additional decimal sub-codes to provide more specific information, but these are not listed here.

    1xx Informational

    Request received, continuing process.

    This class of status code indicates a provisional response, consisting only of the Status-Line and optional headers, and is terminated by an empty line. Since HTTP/1.0 did not define any 1xx status codes, servers must not send a 1xx response to an HTTP/1.0 client except under experimental conditions.

    100 Continue
    This means that the server has received the request headers, and that the client should proceed to send the request body (in the case of a request for which a body needs to be sent; for example, a POST request). If the request body is large, sending it to a server when a request has already been rejected based upon inappropriate headers is inefficient. To have a server check if the request could be accepted based on the request's headers alone, a client must send Expect: 100-continue as a header in its initial request and check if a 100 Continue status code is received in response before continuing (or receive 417 Expectation Failed and not continue).
    101 Switching Protocols
    This means the requester has asked the server to switch protocols and the server is acknowledging that it will do so.
    102 Processing (WebDAV; RFC 2518)
    As a WebDAV request may contain many sub-requests involving file operations, it may take a long time to complete the request. This code indicates that the server has received and is processing the request, but no response is available yet. This prevents the client from timing out and assuming the request was lost.

    2xx Success

    This class of status codes indicates the action requested by the client was received, understood, accepted and processed successfully.

    200 OK
    Standard response for successful HTTP requests. The actual response will depend on the request method used. In a GET request, the response will contain an entity corresponding to the requested resource. In a POST request the response will contain an entity describing or containing the result of the action.
    201 Created
    The request has been fulfilled and resulted in a new resource being created.
    202 Accepted
    The request has been accepted for processing, but the processing has not been completed. The request might or might not eventually be acted upon, as it might be disallowed when processing actually takes place.
    203 Non-Authoritative Information (since HTTP/1.1)
    The server successfully processed the request, but is returning information that may be from another source.
    204 No Content
    The server successfully processed the request, but is not returning any content. Usually used as a response to a successful delete request.
    205 Reset Content
    The server successfully processed the request, but is not returning any content. Unlike a 204 response, this response requires that the requester reset the document view.
    206 Partial Content
    The server is delivering only part of the resource due to a range header sent by the client. The range header is used by tools like wget to enable resuming of interrupted downloads, or split a download into multiple simultaneous streams.
    207 Multi-Status (WebDAV; RFC 4918)
    The message body that follows is an XML message and can contain a number of separate response codes, depending on how many sub-requests were made.
    208 Already Reported (WebDAV; RFC 5842)
    The members of a DAV binding have already been enumerated in a previous reply to this request, and are not being included again.
    226 IM Used (RFC 3229)
    The server has fulfilled a GET request for the resource, and the response is a representation of the result of one or more instance-manipulations applied to the current instance.

    3xx Redirection

    The client must take additional action to complete the request.

    This class of status code indicates that further action needs to be taken by the user agent to fulfill the request. The action required may be carried out by the user agent without interaction with the user if and only if the method used in the second request is GET or HEAD. A user agent should not automatically redirect a request more than five times, since such redirections usually indicate an infinite loop.

    300 Multiple Choices
    Indicates multiple options for the resource that the client may follow. It, for instance, could be used to present different format options for video, list files with different extensions, or word sense disambiguation.
    301 Moved Permanently
    This and all future requests should be directed to the given URI.
    302 Found
    This is an example of industry practice contradicting the standard. The HTTP/1.0 specification (RFC 1945) required the client to perform a temporary redirect (the original describing phrase was "Moved Temporarily"), but popular browsers implemented 302 with the functionality of a 303 See Other. Therefore, HTTP/1.1 added status codes 303 and 307 to distinguish between the two behaviours. However, some Web applications and frameworks use the 302 status code as if it were the 303.
    303 See Other (since HTTP/1.1)
    The response to the request can be found under another URI using a GET method. When received in response to a POST (or PUT/DELETE), it should be assumed that the server has received the data and the redirect should be issued with a separate GET message.
    304 Not Modified
    Indicates that the resource has not been modified since the version specified by the request headers If-Modified-Since or If-Match. This means that there is no need to retransmit the resource, since the client still has a previously-downloaded copy.
    305 Use Proxy (since HTTP/1.1)
    The requested resource is only available through a proxy, whose address is provided in the response. Many HTTP clients (such as Mozilla and Internet Explorer) do not correctly handle responses with this status code, primarily for security reasons.
    306 Switch Proxy
    No longer used. Originally meant "Subsequent requests should use the specified proxy."
    307 Temporary Redirect (since HTTP/1.1)
    In this case, the request should be repeated with another URI; however, future requests should still use the original URI. In contrast to how 302 was historically implemented, the request method is not allowed to be changed when reissuing the original request. For instance, a POST request should be repeated using another POST request.
    308 Permanent Redirect (Experimental RFC; RFC 7238)
    The request, and all future requests should be repeated using another URI. 307 and 308 (as proposed) parallel the behaviours of 302 and 301, but do not allow the HTTP method to change. So, for example, submitting a form to a permanently redirected resource may continue smoothly.

    4xx Client Error

    The 4xx class of status code is intended for cases in which the client seems to have errored. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. These status codes are applicable to any request method. User agents should display any included entity to the user.

    400 Bad Request
    The request cannot be fulfilled due to bad syntax.
    401 Unauthorized
    Similar to 403 Forbidden, but specifically for use when authentication is required and has failed or has not yet been provided. The response must include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource. See Basic access authentication and Digest access authentication.
    402 Payment Required
    Reserved for future use. The original intention was that this code might be used as part of some form of digital cash or micropayment scheme, but that has not happened, and this code is not usually used. YouTube uses this status if a particular IP address has made excessive requests, and requires the person to enter a CAPTCHA.
    403 Forbidden
    The request was a valid request, but the server is refusing to respond to it. Unlike a 401 Unauthorized response, authenticating will make no difference.
    404 Not Found
    The requested resource could not be found but may be available again in the future. Subsequent requests by the client are permissible.
    405 Method Not Allowed
    A request was made of a resource using a request method not supported by that resource; for example, using GET on a form which requires data to be presented via POST, or using PUT on a read-only resource.
    406 Not Acceptable
    The requested resource is only capable of generating content not acceptable according to the Accept headers sent in the request.
    407 Proxy Authentication Required
    The client must first authenticate itself with the proxy.
    408 Request Timeout
    The server timed out waiting for the request. According to HTTP specifications: "The client did not produce a request within the time that the server was prepared to wait. The client MAY repeat the request without modifications at any later time."
    409 Conflict
    Indicates that the request could not be processed because of conflict in the request, such as an edit conflict in the case of multiple updates.
    410 Gone
    Indicates that the resource requested is no longer available and will not be available again. This should be used when a resource has been intentionally removed and the resource should be purged. Upon receiving a 410 status code, the client should not request the resource again in the future. Clients such as search engines should remove the resource from their indices.  Most use cases do not require clients and search engines to purge the resource, and a "404 Not Found" may be used instead.
    411 Length Required
    The request did not specify the length of its content, which is required by the requested resource.
    412 Precondition Failed
    The server does not meet one of the preconditions that the requester put on the request.
    413 Request Entity Too Large
    The request is larger than the server is willing or able to process.
    414 Request-URI Too Long
    The URI provided was too long for the server to process. Often the result of too much data being encoded as a query-string of a GET request, in which case it should be converted to a POST request.
    415 Unsupported Media Type
    The request entity has a media type which the server or resource does not support. For example, the client uploads an image as image/svg+xml, but the server requires that images use a different format.
    416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
    The client has asked for a portion of the file, but the server cannot supply that portion. For example, if the client asked for a part of the file that lies beyond the end of the file.
    417 Expectation Failed
    The server cannot meet the requirements of the Expect request-header field.
    418 I'm a teapot (RFC 2324)
    This code was defined in 1998 as one of the traditional IETF April Fools' jokes, in RFC 2324, Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol, and is not expected to be implemented by actual HTTP servers.
    419 Authentication Timeout (not in RFC 2616)
    Not a part of the HTTP standard, 419 Authentication Timeout denotes that previously valid authentication has expired. It is used as an alternative to 401 Unauthorized in order to differentiate from otherwise authenticated clients being denied access to specific server resources.
    420 Method Failure (Spring Framework)
    Not part of the HTTP standard, but defined by Spring in the HttpStatus class to be used when a method failed. This status code is deprecated by Spring.
    420 Enhance Your Calm (Twitter)
    Not part of the HTTP standard, but returned by version 1 of the Twitter Search and Trends API when the client is being rate limited. Other services may wish to implement the 429 Too Many Requests response code instead.
    422 Unprocessable Entity (WebDAV; RFC 4918)
    The request was well-formed but was unable to be followed due to semantic errors.
    423 Locked (WebDAV; RFC 4918)
    The resource that is being accessed is locked.
    424 Failed Dependency (WebDAV; RFC 4918)
    The request failed due to failure of a previous request (e.g., a PROPPATCH).
    426 Upgrade Required
    The client should switch to a different protocol such as TLS/1.0.
    428 Precondition Required (RFC 6585)
    The origin server requires the request to be conditional. Intended to prevent "the 'lost update' problem, where a client GETs a resource's state, modifies it, and PUTs it back to the server, when meanwhile a third party has modified the state on the server, leading to a conflict."
    429 Too Many Requests (RFC 6585)
    The user has sent too many requests in a given amount of time. Intended for use with rate limiting schemes.
    431 Request Header Fields Too Large (RFC 6585)
    The server is unwilling to process the request because either an individual header field, or all the header fields collectively, are too large.
    440 Login Timeout (Microsoft)
    A Microsoft extension. Indicates that your session has expired.
    444 No Response (Nginx)
    Used in Nginx logs to indicate that the server has returned no information to the client and closed the connection (useful as a deterrent for malware).
    449 Retry With (Microsoft)
    A Microsoft extension. The request should be retried after performing the appropriate action.
    Often search-engines or custom applications will ignore required parameters. Where no default action is appropriate, the Aviongoo website sends a "HTTP/1.1 449 Retry with valid parameters: param1, param2, . . ." response. The applications may choose to learn, or not.
    450 Blocked by Windows Parental Controls (Microsoft)
    A Microsoft extension. This error is given when Windows Parental Controls are turned on and are blocking access to the given webpage.
    451 Unavailable For Legal Reasons (Internet draft)
    Defined in the internet draft "A New HTTP Status Code for Legally-restricted Resources". Intended to be used when resource access is denied for legal reasons, e.g. censorship or government-mandated blocked access. A reference to the 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, where books are outlawed.
    451 Redirect (Microsoft)
    Used in Exchange ActiveSync if there either is a more efficient server to use or the server cannot access the users' mailbox.
    The client is supposed to re-run the HTTP Autodiscovery protocol to find a better suited server.
    494 Request Header Too Large (Nginx)
    Nginx internal code similar to 431 but it was introduced earlier in version 0.9.4 (on January the 21th, 2011).
    495 Cert Error (Nginx)
    Nginx internal code used when SSL client certificate error occurred to distinguish it from 4XX in a log and an error page redirection.
    496 No Cert (Nginx)
    Nginx internal code used when client didn't provide certificate to distinguish it from 4XX in a log and an error page redirection.
    497 HTTP to HTTPS (Nginx)
    Nginx internal code used for the plain HTTP requests that are sent to HTTPS port to distinguish it from 4XX in a log and an error page redirection.
    498 Token expired/invalid (Esri)
    Returned by ArcGIS for Server. A code of 498 indicates an expired or otherwise invalid token.
    499 Client Closed Request (Nginx)
    Used in Nginx logs to indicate when the connection has been closed by client while the server is still processing its request, making server unable to send a status code back.
    499 Token required (Esri)
    Returned by ArcGIS for Server. A code of 499 indicates that a token is required (if no token was submitted).

    5xx Server Error

    The server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request.

    Response status codes beginning with the digit "5" indicate cases in which the server is aware that it has encountered an error or is otherwise incapable of performing the request. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and indicate whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. Likewise, user agents should display any included entity to the user. These response codes are applicable to any request method.

    500 Internal Server Error
    A generic error message, given when an unexpected condition was encountered and no more specific message is suitable.
    501 Not Implemented
    The server either does not recognize the request method, or it lacks the ability to fulfill the request. Usually this implies future availability (e.g., a new feature of a web-service API).
    502 Bad Gateway
    The server was acting as a gateway or proxy and received an invalid response from the upstream server.
    503 Service Unavailable
    The server is currently unavailable (because it is overloaded or down for maintenance). Generally, this is a temporary state.
    504 Gateway Timeout
    The server was acting as a gateway or proxy and did not receive a timely response from the upstream server.
    505 HTTP Version Not Supported
    The server does not support the HTTP protocol version used in the request.
    506 Variant Also Negotiates (RFC 2295)
    Transparent content negotiation for the request results in a circular reference.
    507 Insufficient Storage (WebDAV; RFC 4918)
    The server is unable to store the representation needed to complete the request.
    508 Loop Detected (WebDAV; RFC 5842)
    The server detected an infinite loop while processing the request (sent in lieu of 208 Already Reported).
    509 Bandwidth Limit Exceeded (Apache bw/limited extension)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs. Its use is unknown.
    510 Not Extended (RFC 2774)
    Further extensions to the request are required for the server to fulfill it.
    511 Network Authentication Required (RFC 6585)
    The client needs to authenticate to gain network access. Intended for use by intercepting proxies used to control access to the network (e.g., "captive portals" used to require agreement to Terms of Service before granting full Internet access via a Wi-Fi hotspot).
    520 Origin Error (Cloudflare)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs, but is used by Cloudflare's reverse proxies to signal an "unknown connection issue between CloudFlare and the origin web server" to a client in front of the proxy.
    521 Web server is down (Cloudflare)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs, but is used by Cloudflare's reverse proxies to indicate that the origin webserver refused the connection.
    522 Connection timed out (Cloudflare)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs, but is used by Cloudflare's reverse proxies to signal that a server connection timed out.
    523 Proxy Declined Request (Cloudflare)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs, but is used by Cloudflare's reverse proxies to signal a resource that has been blocked by the administrator of the website or proxy itself.
    524 A timeout occurred (Cloudflare)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs, but is used by Cloudflare's reverse proxies to signal a network read timeout behind the proxy to a client in front of the proxy.
    598 Network read timeout error (Unknown)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs, but is used by Microsoft HTTP proxies to signal a network read timeout behind the proxy to a client in front of the proxy.
    599 Network connect timeout error (Unknown)
    This status code is not specified in any RFCs, but is used by Microsoft HTTP proxies to signal a network connect timeout behind the proxy to a client in front of the proxy.

    Convert: DEC, HEX, OCT, BIN






    Convert: DEC, HEX, OCT, BIN


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15

    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F

    000
    001
    002
    003
    004
    005
    006
    007
    010
    011
    012
    013
    014
    015
    016
    017

    00000000
    00000001
    00000010
    00000011
    00000100
    00000101
    00000110
    00000111
    00001000
    00001001
    00001010
    00001011
    00001100
    00001101
    00001110
    00001111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    30
    31

    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    1A
    1B
    1C
    1D
    1E
    1F

    020
    021
    022
    023
    024
    025
    026
    027
    030
    031
    032
    033
    034
    035
    036
    037

    00010000
    00010001
    00010010
    00010011
    00010100
    00010101
    00010110
    00010111
    00011000
    00011001
    00011010
    00011011
    00011100
    00011101
    00011110
    00011111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    32
    33
    34
    35
    36
    37
    38
    39
    40
    41
    42
    43
    44
    45
    46
    47

    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    2A
    2B
    2C
    2D
    2E
    2F

    040
    041
    042
    043
    044
    045
    046
    047
    050
    051
    052
    053
    054
    055
    056
    057

    00100000
    00100001
    00100010
    00100011
    00100100
    00100101
    00100110
    00100111
    00101000
    00101001
    00101010
    00101011
    00101100
    00101101
    00101110
    00101111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    48
    49
    50
    51
    52
    53
    54
    55
    56
    57
    58
    59
    60
    61
    62
    63

    30
    31
    32
    33
    34
    35
    36
    37
    38
    39
    3A
    3B
    3C
    3D
    3E
    3F

    060
    061
    062
    063
    064
    065
    066
    067
    070
    071
    072
    073
    074
    075
    076
    077

    00110000
    00110001
    00110010
    00110011
    00110100
    00110101
    00110110
    00110111
    00111000
    00111001
    00111010
    00111011
    00111100
    00111101
    00111110
    00111111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    64
    65
    66
    67
    68
    69
    70
    71
    72
    73
    74
    75
    76
    77
    78
    79

    40
    41
    42
    43
    44
    45
    46
    47
    48
    49
    4A
    4B
    4C
    4D
    4E
    4F

    100
    101
    102
    103
    104
    105
    106
    107
    110
    111
    112
    113
    114
    115
    116
    117

    01000000
    01000001
    01000010
    01000011
    01000100
    01000101
    01000110
    01000111
    01001000
    01001001
    01001010
    01001011
    01001100
    01001101
    01001110
    01001111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    80
    81
    82
    83
    84
    85
    86
    87
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    92
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    50
    51
    52
    53
    54
    55
    56
    57
    58
    59
    5A
    5B
    5C
    5D
    5E
    5F

    120
    121
    122
    123
    124
    125
    126
    127
    130
    131
    132
    133
    134
    135
    136
    137

    01010000
    01010001
    01010010
    01010011
    01010100
    01010101
    01010110
    01010111
    01011000
    01011001
    01011010
    01011011
    01011100
    01011101
    01011110
    01011111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    96
    97
    98
    99
    100
    101
    102
    103
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    105
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    108
    109
    110
    111

    60
    61
    62
    63
    64
    65
    66
    67
    68
    69
    6A
    6B
    6C
    6D
    6E
    6F

    140
    141
    142
    143
    144
    145
    146
    147
    150
    151
    152
    153
    154
    155
    156
    157

    01100000
    01100001
    01100010
    01100011
    01100100
    01100101
    01100110
    01100111
    01101000
    01101001
    01101010
    01101011
    01101100
    01101101
    01101110
    01101111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    112
    113
    114
    115
    116
    117
    118
    119
    120
    121
    122
    123
    124
    125
    126
    127

    70
    71
    72
    73
    74
    75
    76
    77
    78
    79
    7A
    7B
    7C
    7D
    7E
    7F

    160
    161
    162
    163
    164
    165
    166
    167
    170
    171
    172
    173
    174
    175
    176
    177

    01110000
    01110001
    01110010
    01110011
    01110100
    01110101
    01110110
    01110111
    01111000
    01111001
    01111010
    01111011
    01111100
    01111101
    01111110
    01111111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    128
    129
    130
    131
    132
    133
    134
    135
    136
    137
    138
    139
    140
    141
    142
    143

    80
    81
    82
    83
    84
    85
    86
    87
    88
    89
    8A
    8B
    8C
    8D
    8E
    8F

    200
    201
    202
    203
    204
    205
    206
    207
    210
    211
    212
    213
    214
    215
    216
    217

    10000000
    10000001
    10000010
    10000011
    10000100
    10000101
    10000110
    10000111
    10001000
    10001001
    10001010
    10001011
    10001100
    10001101
    10001110
    10001111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    144
    145
    146
    147
    148
    149
    150
    151
    152
    153
    154
    155
    156
    157
    158
    159

    90
    91
    92
    93
    94
    95
    96
    97
    98
    99
    9A
    9B
    9C
    9D
    9E
    9F

    220
    221
    222
    223
    224
    225
    226
    227
    230
    231
    232
    233
    234
    235
    236
    237

    10010000
    10010001
    10010010
    10010011
    10010100
    10010101
    10010110
    10010111
    10011000
    10011001
    10011010
    10011011
    10011100
    10011101
    10011110
    10011111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    160
    161
    162
    163
    164
    165
    166
    167
    168
    169
    170
    171
    172
    173
    174
    175

    A0
    A1
    A2
    A3
    A4
    A5
    A6
    A7
    A8
    A9
    AA
    AB
    AC
    AD
    AE
    AF

    240
    241
    242
    243
    244
    245
    246
    247
    250
    251
    252
    253
    254
    255
    256
    257

    10100000
    10100001
    10100010
    10100011
    10100100
    10100101
    10100110
    10100111
    10101000
    10101001
    10101010
    10101011
    10101100
    10101101
    10101110
    10101111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    176
    177
    178
    179
    180
    181
    182
    183
    184
    185
    186
    187
    188
    189
    190
    191

    B0
    B1
    B2
    B3
    B4
    B5
    B6
    B7
    B8
    B9
    BA
    BB
    BC
    BD
    BE
    BF

    260
    261
    262
    263
    264
    265
    266
    267
    270
    271
    272
    273
    274
    275
    276
    277

    10110000
    10110001
    10110010
    10110011
    10110100
    10110101
    10110110
    10110111
    10111000
    10111001
    10111010
    10111011
    10111100
    10111101
    10111110
    10111111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    192
    193
    194
    195
    196
    197
    198
    199
    200
    201
    202
    203
    204
    205
    206
    207

    C0
    C1
    C2
    C3
    C4
    C5
    C6
    C7
    C8
    C9
    CA
    CB
    CC
    CD
    CE
    CF

    300
    301
    302
    303
    304
    305
    306
    307
    310
    311
    312
    313
    314
    315
    316
    317

    11000000
    11000001
    11000010
    11000011
    11000100
    11000101
    11000110
    11000111
    11001000
    11001001
    11001010
    11001011
    11001100
    11001101
    11001110
    11001111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    208
    209
    210
    211
    212
    213
    214
    215
    216
    217
    218
    219
    220
    221
    222
    223

    D0
    D1
    D2
    D3
    D4
    D5
    D6
    D7
    D8
    D9
    DA
    DB
    DC
    DD
    DE
    DF

    320
    321
    322
    323
    324
    325
    326
    327
    330
    331
    332
    333
    334
    335
    336
    337

    11010000
    11010001
    11010010
    11010011
    11010100
    11010101
    11010110
    11010111
    11011000
    11011001
    11011010
    11011011
    11011100
    11011101
    11011110
    11011111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    224
    225
    226
    227
    228
    229
    230
    231
    232
    233
    234
    235
    236
    237
    238
    239

    E0
    E1
    E2
    E3
    E4
    E5
    E6
    E7
    E8
    E9
    EA
    EB
    EC
    ED
    EE
    EF

    340
    341
    342
    343
    344
    345
    346
    347
    350
    351
    352
    353
    354
    355
    356
    357

    11100000
    11100001
    11100010
    11100011
    11100100
    11100101
    11100110
    11100111
    11101000
    11101001
    11101010
    11101011
    11101100
    11101101
    11101110
    11101111


    Dec

    Hex

    Oct

    Bin

    240
    241
    242
    243
    244
    245
    246
    247
    248
    249
    250
    251
    252
    253
    254
    255

    F0
    F1
    F2
    F3
    F4
    F5
    F6
    F7
    F8
    F9
    FA
    FB
    FC
    FD
    FE
    FF

    360
    361
    362
    363
    364
    365
    366
    367
    370
    371
    372
    373
    374
    375
    376
    377

    11110000
    11110001
    11110010
    11110011
    11110100
    11110101
    11110110
    11110111
    11111000
    11111001
    11111010
    11111011
    11111100
    11111101
    11111110
    11111111

    ASCII Set






    ASCII Set


     Standard ASCII set, HTML Entity names, ISO 10646, ISO 8879, ISO 8859-1 Latin alphabet No. 1
     Browser support: All browsers


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    32
    33
    34
    35
    36
    37
    38
    39
    40
    41
    42
    43
    44
    45
    46
    47
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    2A
    2B
    2C
    2D
    2E
    2F

    !
    "
    #
    $
    %
    &
    '
    (
    )
    *
    +
    ,
    -
    .
    /
     
    !
    "
    #
    $
    %
    &
    '
    (
    )
    *
    +
    ,
    -
    .
    /


    "



    &









    space
    exclamation point
    double quotes
    number sign
    dollar sign
    percent sign
    ampersand
    single quote
    opening parenthesis
    closing parenthesis
    asterisk
    plus sign
    comma
    minus sign - hyphen
    period
    slash


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    48
    49
    50
    51
    52
    53
    54
    55
    56
    57
    58
    59
    60
    61
    62
    63
    30
    31
    32
    33
    34
    35
    36
    37
    38
    39
    3A
    3B
    3C
    3D
    3E
    3F
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    :
    ;
    <
    =
    >
    ?
    &#48;
    &#49;
    &#50;
    &#51;
    &#52;
    &#53;
    &#54;
    &#55;
    &#56;
    &#57;
    &#58;
    &#59;
    &#60;
    &#61;
    &#62;
    &#63;












    &lt;

    &gt;

    zero
    one
    two
    three
    four
    five
    six
    seven
    eight
    nine
    colon
    semicolon
    less than sign
    equal sign
    greater than sign
    question mark


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    64
    65
    66
    67
    68
    69
    70
    71
    72
    73
    74
    75
    76
    77
    78
    79
    40
    41
    42
    43
    44
    45
    46
    47
    48
    49
    4A
    4B
    4C
    4D
    4E
    4F
    @
    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    G
    H
    I
    J
    K
    L
    M
    N
    O
    &#64;
    &#65;
    &#66;
    &#67;
    &#68;
    &#69;
    &#70;
    &#71;
    &#72;
    &#73;
    &#74;
    &#75;
    &#76;
    &#77;
    &#78;
    &#79;
















    at symbol

















    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    80
    81
    82
    83
    84
    85
    86
    87
    88
    89
    90
    91
    92
    93
    94
    95
    50
    51
    52
    53
    54
    55
    56
    57
    58
    59
    5A
    5B
    5C
    5D
    5E
    5F
    P
    Q
    R
    S
    T
    U
    V
    W
    X
    Y
    Z
    [
    \
    ]
    ^
    _
    &#80;
    &#81;
    &#82;
    &#83;
    &#84;
    &#85;
    &#86;
    &#87;
    &#88;
    &#89;
    &#90;
    &#91;
    &#92;
    &#93;
    &#94;
    &#95;



























    opening bracket
    backslash
    closing bracket
    caret - circumflex
    underscore


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    96
    97
    98
    99
    100
    101
    102
    103
    104
    105
    106
    107
    108
    109
    110
    111
    60
    61
    62
    63
    64
    65
    66
    67
    68
    69
    6A
    6B
    6C
    6D
    6E
    6F
    `
    a
    b
    c
    d
    e
    f
    g
    h
    i
    j
    k
    l
    m
    n
    o
    &#96;
    &#97;
    &#98;
    &#99;
    &#100;
    &#101;
    &#102;
    &#103;
    &#104;
    &#105;
    &#106;
    &#107;
    &#108;
    &#109;
    &#110;
    &#111;
















    grave accent

















    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    112
    113
    114
    115
    116
    117
    118
    119
    120
    121
    122
    123
    124
    125
    126
    127
    70
    71
    72
    73
    74
    75
    76
    77
    78
    79
    7A
    7B
    7C
    7D
    7E
    7F
    p
    q
    r
    s
    t
    u
    v
    w
    x
    y
    z
    {
    |
    }
    ~

    &#112;
    &#113;
    &#114;
    &#115;
    &#116;
    &#117;
    &#118;
    &#119;
    &#120;
    &#121;
    &#122;
    &#123;
    &#124;
    &#125;
    &#126;




























    opening brace
    vertical bar
    closing brace
    equivalency sign - tilde
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    128
    129
    130
    131
    132
    133
    134
    135
    136
    137
    138
    139
    140
    141
    142
    143
    80
    81
    82
    83
    84
    85
    86
    87
    88
    89
    8A
    8B
    8C
    8D
    8E
    8F
















































    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    144
    145
    146
    147
    148
    149
    150
    151
    152
    153
    154
    155
    156
    157
    158
    159
    90
    91
    92
    93
    94
    95
    96
    97
    98
    99
    9A
    9B
    9C
    9D
    9E
    9F
















































    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)
    (not defined in HTML 4 standard)


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    160
    161
    162
    163
    164
    165
    166
    167
    168
    169
    170
    171
    172
    173
    174
    175
    A0
    A1
    A2
    A3
    A4
    A5
    A6
    A7
    A8
    A9
    AA
    AB
    AC
    AD
    AE
    AF
     
    ¡
    ¢
    £
    ¤
    ¥
    ¦
    §
    ¨
    ©
    ª
    «
    ¬
    ­
    ®
    ¯
    &#160;
    &#161;
    &#162;
    &#163;
    &#164;
    &#165;
    &#166;
    &#167;
    &#168;
    &#169;
    &#170;
    &#171;
    &#172;
    &#173;
    &#174;
    &#175;
    &nbsp;
    &iexcl;
    &cent;
    &pound;
    &curren;
    &yen;
    &brvbar;
    &sect;
    &uml;
    &copy;
    &ordf;
    &laquo;
    &not;
    &shy;
    &reg;
    &macr;
    non-breaking space
    inverted exclamation mark
    cent sign
    pound sign
    currency sign
    yen sign
    broken vertical bar
    section sign
    spacing diaeresis - umlaut
    copyright sign
    feminine ordinal indicator
    left double angle quotes
    not sign
    soft hyphen
    registered trade mark sign
    spacing macron - overline


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    176
    177
    178
    179
    180
    181
    182
    183
    184
    185
    186
    187
    188
    189
    190
    191
    B0
    B1
    B2
    B3
    B4
    B5
    B6
    B7
    B8
    B9
    BA
    BB
    BC
    BD
    BE
    BF
    °
    ±
    ²
    ³
    ´
    µ

    ·
    ¸
    ¹
    º
    »
    ¼
    ½
    ¾
    ¿
    &#176;
    &#177;
    &#178;
    &#179;
    &#180;
    &#181;
    &#182;
    &#183;
    &#184;
    &#185;
    &#186;
    &#187;
    &#188;
    &#189;
    &#190;
    &#191;
    &deg;
    &plusmn;
    &sup2;
    &sup3;
    &acute;
    &micro;
    &para;
    &middot;
    &cedil;
    &sup1;
    &ordm;
    &raquo;
    &frac14;
    &frac12;
    &frac34;
    &iquest;
    degree sign
    plus-or-minus sign
    superscript two - squared
    superscript three - cubed
    acute accent - spacing acute
    micro sign
    pilcrow sign - paragraph sign
    middle dot - Georgian comma
    spacing cedilla
    superscript one
    masculine ordinal indicator
    right double angle quotes
    fraction one quarter
    fraction one half
    fraction three quarters
    inverted question mark


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    192
    193
    194
    195
    196
    197
    198
    199
    200
    201
    202
    203
    204
    205
    206
    207
    C0
    C1
    C2
    C3
    C4
    C5
    C6
    C7
    C8
    C9
    CA
    CB
    CC
    CD
    CE
    CF
    À
    Á
    Â
    Ã
    Ä
    Å
    Æ
    Ç
    È
    É
    Ê
    Ë
    Ì
    Í
    Î
    Ï
    &#192;
    &#193;
    &#194;
    &#195;
    &#196;
    &#197;
    &#198;
    &#199;
    &#200;
    &#201;
    &#202;
    &#203;
    &#204;
    &#205;
    &#206;
    &#207;
    &Agrave;
    &Aacute;
    &Acirc;
    &Atilde;
    &Auml;
    &Aring;
    &AElig;
    &Ccedil;
    &Egrave;
    &Eacute;
    &Ecirc;
    &Euml;
    &Igrave;
    &Iacute;
    &Icirc;
    &Iuml;
    latin capital letter A with grave
    latin capital letter A with acute
    latin capital letter A with circumflex
    latin capital letter A with tilde
    latin capital letter A with diaeresis
    latin capital letter A with ring above
    latin capital letter AE
    latin capital letter C with cedilla
    latin capital letter E with grave
    latin capital letter E with acute
    latin capital letter E with circumflex
    latin capital letter E with diaeresis
    latin capital letter I with grave
    latin capital letter I with acute
    latin capital letter I with circumflex
    latin capital letter I with diaeresis


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    208
    209
    210
    211
    212
    213
    214
    215
    216
    217
    218
    219
    220
    221
    222
    223
    D0
    D1
    D2
    D3
    D4
    D5
    D6
    D7
    D8
    D9
    DA
    DB
    DC
    DD
    DE
    DF
    Ð
    Ñ
    Ò
    Ó
    Ô
    Õ
    Ö
    ×
    Ø
    Ù
    Ú
    Û
    Ü
    Ý
    Þ
    ß
    &#208;
    &#209;
    &#210;
    &#211;
    &#212;
    &#213;
    &#214;
    &#215;
    &#216;
    &#217;
    &#218;
    &#219;
    &#220;
    &#221;
    &#222;
    &#223;
    &ETH;
    &Ntilde;
    &Ograve;
    &Oacute;
    &Ocirc;
    &Otilde;
    &Ouml;
    &times;
    &Oslash;
    &Ugrave;
    &Uacute;
    &Ucirc;
    &Uuml;
    &Yacute;
    &THORN;
    &szlig;
    latin capital letter ETH
    latin capital letter N with tilde
    latin capital letter O with grave
    latin capital letter O with acute
    latin capital letter O with circumflex
    latin capital letter O with tilde
    latin capital letter O with diaeresis
    multiplication sign
    latin capital letter O with slash
    latin capital letter U with grave
    latin capital letter U with acute
    latin capital letter U with circumflex
    latin capital letter U with diaeresis
    latin capital letter Y with acute
    latin capital letter THORN
    latin small letter sharp s - ess-zed


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    224
    225
    226
    227
    228
    229
    230
    231
    232
    233
    234
    235
    236
    237
    238
    239
    E0
    E1
    E2
    E3
    E4
    E5
    E6
    E7
    E8
    E9
    EA
    EB
    EC
    ED
    EE
    EF
    à
    á
    â
    ã
    ä
    å
    æ
    ç
    è
    é
    ê
    ë
    ì
    í
    î
    ï
    &#224;
    &#225;
    &#226;
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    &#228;
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    &#239;
    &agrave;
    &aacute;
    &acirc;
    &atilde;
    &auml;
    &aring;
    &aelig;
    &ccedil;
    &egrave;
    &eacute;
    &ecirc;
    &euml;
    &igrave;
    &iacute;
    &icirc;
    &iuml;
    latin small letter a with grave
    latin small letter a with acute
    latin small letter a with circumflex
    latin small letter a with tilde
    latin small letter a with diaeresis
    latin small letter a with ring above
    latin small letter ae
    latin small letter c with cedilla
    latin small letter e with grave
    latin small letter e with acute
    latin small letter e with circumflex
    latin small letter e with diaeresis
    latin small letter i with grave
    latin small letter i with acute
    latin small letter i with circumflex
    latin small letter i with diaeresis


    ASCII   HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    240
    241
    242
    243
    244
    245
    246
    247
    248
    249
    250
    251
    252
    253
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    255
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    F1
    F2
    F3
    F4
    F5
    F6
    F7
    F8
    F9
    FA
    FB
    FC
    FD
    FE
    FF
    ð
    ñ
    ò
    ó
    ô
    õ
    ö
    ÷
    ø
    ù
    ú
    û
    ü
    ý
    þ
    ÿ
    &#240;
    &#241;
    &#242;
    &#243;
    &#244;
    &#245;
    &#246;
    &#247;
    &#248;
    &#249;
    &#250;
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    &#253;
    &#254;
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    &eth;
    &ntilde;
    &ograve;
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    &ouml;
    &divide;
    &oslash;
    &ugrave;
    &uacute;
    &ucirc;
    &uuml;
    &yacute;
    &thorn;
    &yuml;
    latin small letter eth
    latin small letter n with tilde
    latin small letter o with grave
    latin small letter o with acute
    latin small letter o with circumflex
    latin small letter o with tilde
    latin small letter o with diaeresis
    division sign
    latin small letter o with slash
    latin small letter u with grave
    latin small letter u with acute
    latin small letter u with circumflex
    latin small letter u with diaeresis
    latin small letter y with acute
    latin small letter thorn
    latin small letter y with diaeresis


     HTML 4.01, ISO 10646, ISO 8879, Latin extended A and B,
     Browser support: Internet Explorer > 4, Netscape > 4


        HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    338
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    352
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    376
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    152
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    160
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    178
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    Œ
    œ
    Š
    š
    Ÿ
    ƒ
    &#338;
    &#339;
    &#352;
    &#353;
    &#376;
    &#402;






    latin capital letter OE
    latin small letter oe
    latin capital letter S with caron
    latin small letter s with caron
    latin capital letter Y with diaeresis
    latin small f with hook - function


        HTML HTML  
    DEC HEX Symbol Number Name

    8211
    8212
    8216
    8217
    8218
    8220
    8221
    8222
    8224
    8225
    8226
    8230
    8240
    8364
    8482
    2013
    2014
    2018
    2019
    201A
    201C
    201D
    201E
    2020
    2021
    2022
    2026
    2030
    20AC
    2122















    &#8211;
    &#8212;
    &#8216;
    &#8217;
    &#8218;
    &#8220;
    &#8221;
    &#8222;
    &#8224;
    &#8225;
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    &#8240;
    &#8364;
    &#8482;













    &euro;

    en dash
    em dash
    left single quotation mark
    right single quotation mark
    single low-9 quotation mark
    left double quotation mark
    right double quotation mark
    double low-9 quotation mark
    dagger
    double dagger
    bullet
    horizontal ellipsis
    per thousand sign
    euro sign
    trade mark sign

    All IT Acronyms






    All IT Acronyms

    • /.-Slashdot
    • 1GL-First-Generation Programming Language
    • 1NF-First Normal Form
    • 10B2-10BASE-2
    • 10B5-10BASE-5
    • 10B-F-10BASE-F
    • 10B-FB-10BASE-FB
    • 10B-FL-10BASE-FL
    • 10B-FP-10BASE-FP
    • 10B-T-10BASE-T
    • 100B-FX-100BASE-FX
    • 100B-T-100BASE-T
    • 100B-TX-100BASE-TX
    • 100BVG-100BASE-VG
    • 286-Intel 80286 processor
    • 2B1Q-2 Binary 1 Quaternary
    • 2GL-Second-Generation Programming Language
    • 2NF-Second Normal Form
    • 3GL-Third-Generation Programming Language
    • 3GPP-mobile broadband "3G" Partnership Project
    • 3NF-Third Normal Form
    • 386-Intel 80386 processor
    • 486-Intel 80486 processor
    • 4B5BLF-4 Byte 5 Byte Local Fiber
    • 4GL-Fourth-Generation Programming Language
    • 4NF-Fourth Normal Form
    • 5GL-Fifth-Generation Programming Language
    • 5NF-Fifth Normal Form
    • 6NF-Sixth Normal Form
    • 8B10BLF-8 Byte 10 Byte Local Fiber

    A

    • AAT-Average Access Time
    • AA-Anti-Aliasing
    • AAA-Authentication Authorization, Accounting
    • AABB-Axis Aligned Bounding Box
    • AAC-Advanced Audio Coding
    • AAL-ATM Adaptation Layer
    • AALC-ATM Adaptation Layer Connection
    • AARP-AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
    • ABCL-Actor-Based Concurrent Language
    • ABI-Application Binary Interface
    • ABM-Asynchronous Balanced Mode
    • ABR-Area Border Router
    • ABR-Auto Baud-Rate detection
    • ABR-Available Bitrate
    • ABR-Average Bitrate
    • AC-Acoustic Coupler
    • AC-Alternating Current
    • ACD-Automatic Call Distributor
    • ACE-Advanced Computing Environment
    • ACID-Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability
    • ACK-ACKnowledgement
    • ACK-Amsterdam Compiler Kit
    • ACL-Access Control List
    • ACL-Active Current Loop
    • ACM-Association for Computing Machinery
    • ACME-Automated Classification of Medical Entities
    • ACP-Airline Control Program
    • ACPI-Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
    • ACR-Allowed Cell Rate
    • ACR-Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio
    • AD-Active Directory
    • AD-Administrative Domain
    • ADC-Analog-to-Digital Converter
    • ADC-Apple Display Connector
    • ADB-Apple Desktop Bus
    • ADCCP-Advanced Data Communications Control Procedures
    • ADO-ActiveX Data Objects
    • ADSL-Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
    • ADT-Abstract Data Type
    • AE-Adaptive Equalizer
    • AES-Advanced Encryption Standard
    • AF-Anisotropic Filtering
    • AFP-Apple Filing Protocol
    • AGP-Accelerated Graphics Port
    • AH-Active Hub
    • AI-Artificial Intelligence
    • AIX-Advanced Interactive eXecutive
    • Ajax-Asynchronous JavaScript and XML
    • AL-Active Link
    • AL-Access List
    • ALAC-Apple Lossless Audio Codec
    • ALGOL-Algorithmic Language
    • ALSA-Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
    • ALU-Arithmetic and Logical Unit
    • AM-Access Method
    • AM-Active Matrix
    • AMOLED-Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode
    • AM-Active Monitor
    • AM-Allied Mastercomputer
    • AM-Amplitude Modulation
    • AMD-Advanced Micro Devices
    • AMQP-Advanced Message Queuing Protocol
    • AMR-Audio Modem Riser
    • ANN-Artificial Neural Network
    • ANSI-American National Standards Institute
    • ANT-Another Neat Tool
    • AoE-ATA over Ethernet
    • AOP-Aspect-Oriented Programming
    • APCI-Application-Layer Protocol Control Information
    • API-Application Programming Interface
    • APIC-Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
    • APIPA-Automatic Private IP Addressing
    • APL-A Programming Language
    • APR-Apache Portable Runtime
    • ARC-Adaptive Replacement Cache
    • ARC-Advanced RISC Computing
    • ARIN-American Registry for Internet Numbers
    • ARM-Advanced RISC Machines
    • AROS-AROS Research Operating System
    • ARP-Address Resolution Protocol
    • ARPA-Address and Routing Parameter Area
    • ARPA-Advanced Research Projects Agency
    • ARPANET-Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
    • AS-Access Server
    • ASCII-American Standard Code for Information Interchange
    • ASG-Abstract Semantic Graph
    • ASIC-Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
    • ASIMO-Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility
    • ASLR-Address Space Layout Randomization
    • ASM-Algorithmic State Machine
    • ASMP-Asymmetric Multiprocessing
    • ASN.1-Abstract Syntax Notation 1
    • ASP-Active Server Pages
    • ASP-Application Service Provider
    • ASR-Asynchronous Signal Routine
    • AST-Abstract Syntax Tree
    • ASSP-Application-Specific Standard Product
    • AT-Advanced Technology
    • AT-Access Time
    • AT-Active Terminator
    • ATA-Advanced Technology Attachment
    • ATAG-Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines
    • ATAPI-Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface
    • ATM-Asynchronous Transfer Mode
    • AVC-Advanced Video Coding
    • AVI-Audio Video Interleaved
    • AWK-Aho Weinberger Kernighan
    • AWT-Abstract Window Toolkit

    B

    • B2B-Business-to-Business
    • B2C-Business-to-Consumer
    • BAL-Basic Assembly Language
    • BAM-Block Availability Map
    • Bash-Bourne-again shell
    • BASIC-Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
    • BBP-Baseband Processor
    • BBS-Bulletin Board System
    • BCD-Binary Coded Decimal
    • BCNF-Boyce–Codd normal form
    • BEEP-Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol
    • BER-Bit Error Rate
    • BFD-Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
    • BFD-Binary File Descriptor
    • BFS-Breadth-First Search
    • BFT-Byzantine Fault Tolerant
    • BGP-Border Gateway Protocol
    • BI-Business Intelligence
    • BiDi-Bi-Directional
    • bin-binary
    • BINAC-Binary Automatic Computer
    • BIND-Berkeley Internet Name Domain
    • BIOS-Basic Input Output System
    • BJT-Bipolar Junction Transistor
    • bit-binary digit
    • Blob-Binary large object
    • Blog-Web Log
    • BMP-Basic Multilingual Plane
    • BNC-Bayonet Neill-Concelman
    • BOINC-Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing
    • BOM-Byte Order Mark
    • BOOTP-Bootstrap Protocol
    • BPDU-Bridge Protocol Data Unit
    • BPEL-Business Process Execution Language
    • BPL-Broadband over Power Lines
    • BPM-Business Process Modeling
    • bps-bits per second
    • BRM-Business Reference Model
    • BRMS-Business Rule Management System
    • BRR-Business Readiness Rating
    • BSA-Business Software Alliance
    • BSB-Backside Bus
    • BSD-Berkeley Software Distribution
    • BSoD-Blue Screen of Death
    • BSS-Block Started by Symbol
    • BT-BitTorrent
    • BT-Bluetooth
    • BTAM-Basic Telecommunications Access Method
    • BW-Bandwidth
    • BYOD-Bring Your Own Device

    C

    • CA-Certificate Authority
    • CAD-Computer-Aided Design
    • CAE-Computer-Aided Engineering
    • CAID-Computer-Aided Industrial Design
    • CAI-Computer-Aided Instruction
    • CAM-Computer-Aided Manufacturing
    • CAPTCHA-Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart
    • CAT-Computer-Aided Translation
    • CAQ-Computer-Aided Quality Assurance
    • CASE-Computer-Aided Software Engineering
    • cc-C Compiler
    • CD-Compact Disc
    • CDE-Common Desktop Environment
    • CDMA-Code Division Multiple Access
    • CDN-Content Delivery Network
    • CDP-Continuous Data Protection
    • CD-R-CD-Recordable
    • CD-ROM-CD Read-Only Memory
    • CD-RW-CD-Rewritable
    • CDSA-Common Data Security Architecture
    • CERT-Computer Emergency Response Team
    • CES-Consumer Electronics Show
    • CF-Compact Flash
    • CFD-Computational Fluid Dynamics
    • CFG-Context-Free Grammar
    • CFG-Control Flow Graph
    • CG-Computer Graphics
    • CGA-Color Graphics Array
    • CGI-Common Gateway Interface
    • CGI-Computer-Generated Imagery
    • CGT-Computational Graph Theory
    • CHAP-Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol
    • CHS-Cylinder-Head-Sector
    • CIDR-Classless Inter-Domain Routing
    • CIFS-Common Internet Filesystem
    • CIM-Common Information Model
    • CIM-Computationally Independent Model
    • CIR-Committed information rate
    • CISC-Complex Instruction Set Computer
    • CJK-Chinese, Japanese, and Korean
    • CJKV-Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese
    • CLI-Command Line Interface
    • CLR-Common Language Runtime
    • CM-Configuration Management
    • CM-Content Management
    • CMMI-Capability Maturity Model Integration
    • CMOS-Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
    • CMS-Content Management System
    • CN-Canonical Name
    • CN-Common Name
    • CNC-Computer Numerical Control
    • CNR-Communications and Networking Riser
    • COBOL-Common Business-Oriented Language
    • COMPUTER-Common Operating Machine Particularly Used for Trade, Education, and Research
    • COM-Component Object Model
    • CORBA-Common Object Request Broker Architecture
    • COTS-Commercial Off-The-Shelf
    • CPA-Cell Processor Architecture
    • CPAN-Comprehensive Perl Archive Network
    • CP/M-Control Program/Monitor
    • CPRI-Common Public Radio Interface
    • CPS-characters per second
    • CPU-Central Processing Unit
    • CR-Carriage Return
    • CRAN-Comprehensive R Archive Network
    • CRC-Cyclic Redundancy Check
    • CRLF-Carriage Return Line Feeds
    • CRM-Customer Relationship Management
    • CRS-Computer Reservations System
    • CRT-Cathode Ray Tube
    • CRUD-Create, Read, Update and Delete
    • CS-Cable Select
    • CS-Computer Science
    • CSE-Computer Science and Engineering
    • CSI-Common System Interface
    • CSP-Cloud Service Provider
    • CSP-Communicating Sequential Processes
    • CSRF-Cross-Site Request Forgery
    • CSS-Cascading Style Sheets
    • CSS-Content-Scrambling System
    • CSS-Closed Source Software
    • CSS-Cross-Site Scripting
    • CSV-Comma-Separated Values
    • CT-Computerized Tomography
    • CTAN-Comprehensive TeX Archive Network
    • CTCP-Client-To-Client Protocol
    • CTI-Computer Telephony Integration
    • CTL-Computational Tree Logic
    • CTM-Close To Metal
    • CTS-Clear To Send
    • CTSS-Compatible Time-Sharing System
    • CUA-Common User Access
    • CVS-Concurrent Versioning System

    D

    • DAC-Digital-To-Analog Converter
    • DAC-Discretionary Access Control
    • DAL-Database Abstraction Layer
    • DAO-Data Access Object
    • DAO-Data Access Objects
    • DAO-Disk-At-Once
    • DAP-Directory Access Protocol
    • DARPA-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
    • DAT-Digital Audio Tape
    • DB-Database
    • DBA-Database Administrator
    • DBCS-Double Byte Character Set
    • DBMS-Database Management System
    • DCC-Direct Client-to-Client
    • DCCP-Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
    • DCCA-Debian Common Core Alliance
    • DCL-Data Control Language
    • DCMI-Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
    • DCOM-Distributed Component Object Model
    • DD-Double Density
    • DDE-Dynamic Data Exchange
    • DDL-Data Definition Language
    • DDoS-Distributed Denial of Service
    • DDR-Double Data Rate
    • DEC-Digital Equipment Corporation
    • DES-Data Encryption Standard
    • dev-development
    • DFA-Deterministic Finite Automaton
    • DFD-Data Flow Diagram
    • DFS-Depth-First Search
    • DFS-Distributed File System
    • DGD-Dworkin's Game Driver
    • DHCP-Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
    • DHTML-Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language
    • DIF-Data Integrity Field
    • DIMM-Dual Inline Memory Module
    • DIN-Deutsches Institut für Normung
    • DIP-Dual In-line Package
    • DIVX-Digital Video Express
    • DKIM-Domain Keys Identified Mail
    • DL-Download
    • DLL-Dynamic Link Library
    • DLNA-Digital Living Network Alliance
    • DLP-Digital Light Processing
    • DMA-Direct Memory Access
    • DMCA-Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    • DMI-Direct Media Interface
    • DML-Data Manipulation Language
    • DML-Definitive Media Library
    • DMR-Dennis M. Ritchie
    • DN-Distinguished Name
    • DND-Drag-and-Drop
    • DNS-Domain Name System
    • DOCSIS-Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
    • DOM-Document Object Model
    • DoS-Denial of Service
    • DOS-Disk Operating System
    • DP-Dot Pitch
    • DPC-Deferred Procedure Call
    • DPI-Deep Packet Inspection
    • DPI-Dots Per Inch
    • DPMI-DOS Protected Mode Interface
    • DPMS-Display Power Management Signaling
    • DRAM-Dynamic Random Access Memory
    • DR-DOS-Digital Research - Disk Operating System
    • DRI-Direct Rendering Infrastructure
    • DRM-Digital Rights Management
    • DRM-Direct Rendering Manager
    • DSDL-Document Schema Definition Languages
    • DSDM-Dynamic Systems Development Method
    • DSL-Digital Subscriber Line
    • DSL-Domain-Specific Language
    • DSLAM-Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
    • DSN-Database Source Name
    • DSN-Data Set Name
    • DSP-Digital Signal Processor
    • DSSSL-Document Style Semantics and Specification Language
    • DTD-Document Type Definition
    • DTE-Data Terminal Equipment
    • DTP-Desktop Publishing
    • DTR-Data Terminal Ready
    • DVD-Digital Versatile Disc
    • DVD-Digital Video Disc
    • DVD-R-DVD-Recordable
    • DVD-ROM-DVD-Read Only Memory
    • DVD-RW-DVD-Rewritable
    • DVI-Digital Visual Interface
    • DVR-Digital Video Recorder

    E

    • EAI-Enterprise Application Integration
    • EAP-Extensible Authentication Protocol
    • EBCDIC-Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
    • EBML-Extensible Binary Meta Language
    • ECC-Elliptic Curve Cryptography
    • ECMA-European Computer Manufacturers Association
    • ECN-Explicit Congestion Notification
    • ECOS-Embedded Configurable Operating System
    • ECRS-Expense and Cost Recovery System
    • EDA-Electronic Design Automation
    • EDI-Electronic Data Interchange
    • EDO-Extended Data Out
    • EDSAC-Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator
    • EDVAC-Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
    • EEPROM-Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
    • EFF-Electronic Frontier Foundation
    • EFI-Extensible Firmware Interface
    • EFM-Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation
    • EGA-Enhanced Graphics Array
    • E-mail-Electronic mail
    • EGP-Exterior Gateway Protocol
    • eID-electronic ID card
    • EIDE-Enhanced IDE
    • EIGRP-Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
    • EISA-Extended Industry Standard Architecture
    • ELF-Extremely Low Frequency
    • ELF-Executable and Linkable Format
    • ELM-ELectronic Mail
    • EMACS-Editor MACroS
    • EMS-Expanded Memory Specification
    • ENIAC-Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
    • EOF-End of File
    • EOL-End of Line
    • EOM-End Of Message
    • EPIC-Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing
    • EPROM-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
    • ERD-Entity-Relationship Diagram
    • ERM-Entity-Relationship Model
    • ERP-Enterprise Resource Planning
    • ESB-Enterprise service bus
    • ESCON-Enterprise Systems Connection
    • ESD-Electrostatic Discharge
    • ETL-Extract, Transform, Load
    • ESR-Eric Steven Raymond
    • EUC-Extended Unix Code
    • EULA-End User License Agreement
    • EWMH-Extended Window Manager Hints
    • EXT-EXTended file system

    F

    • FAP-FORTRAN Assembly Program
    • FASM-Flat ASseMbler
    • FAT-File Allocation Table
    • FAQ-Frequently Asked Questions
    • FBDIMM-Fully Buffered Dual Inline Memory Module
    • FC-AL-Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop
    • FCB-File Control Block
    • FCS-Frame Check Sequence
    • FDC-Floppy Disk Controller
    • FDS-Fedora Directory Server
    • FDD-Floppy Disk Drive
    • FDDI-Fiber Distributed Data Interface
    • FDMA-Frequency-Division Multiple Access
    • FEC-Forward Error Correction
    • FEMB-Front-End Motherboard
    • FET-Field Effect Transistor
    • FHS-Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
    • FICON-FIber CONnectivity
    • FIFO-First In First Out
    • FIPS-Federal Information Processing Standards
    • FL-Function Level
    • FLAC-Free Lossless Audio Codec
    • FLOPS-FLoating-Point Operations Per Second
    • FLOSS-Free/Libre/Open Source Software
    • FMC- Fixed Mobile Convergence "Mobile UC or Unified Communications over Wireless"
    • FOLDOC-Free On-line Dictionary of Computing
    • FOSDEM-Free and Open source Software Developers' European Meeting
    • FOSI-Formatted Output Specification Instance
    • FOSS-Free and Open Source Software
    • FP-Function Programming
    • FPGA-Field Programmable Gate Array
    • FPS-Floating Point Systems
    • FPU-Floating Point Unit
    • FRU-Field Replaceable Unit
    • FS-File System
    • FSB-Front Side Bus
    • fsck-File System Check
    • FSF-Free Software Foundation
    • FSM-Finite State Machine
    • FTTC-Fiber To The Curb
    • FTTH-Fiber To The Home
    • FTTP-Fiber To The Premises
    • FTP-File Transfer Protocol
    • FQDN-Fully Qualified Domain Name
    • FUD-Fear Uncertainty Doubt
    • FWS-Folding White Space
    • FXP-File eXchange Protocol

    G

    • G11N-Globalization
    • Gas-GNU Assembler
    • Gb-Gigabit
    • GB-Gigabyte
    • GCC-GNU Compiler Collection
    • GCJ-GNU Compiler for Java
    • GCR-Group Code Recording
    • GDB-GNU Debugger
    • GDI-Graphics Device Interface
    • GFDL-GNU Free Documentation License
    • GIF-Graphics Interchange Format
    • GIGO-Garbage In, Garbage Out
    • GIMP-GNU Image Manipulation Program
    • GIMPS-Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search
    • GIS-Geographic Information System
    • GLUT-OpenGL Utility Toolkit
    • GML-Geography Markup Language
    • GNOME-GNU Network Object Model Environment
    • GNU-GNU's Not Unix
    • GOMS-Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules
    • GPASM-GNU PIC ASseMbler
    • GPFS-General Parallel File System
    • GPG-GNU Privacy Guard
    • GPGPU-General-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units
    • GPIB-General-Purpose Instrumentation Bus
    • GPL-General Public License
    • GPL-General-Purpose Language
    • GPRS-General Packet Radio Service
    • GPT-GUID Partition Table
    • GPU-Graphics Processing Unit
    • GRUB-Grand Unified Boot-Loader
    • GSM-Global System for Mobile Communications
    • GTK+-GIMP Toolkit
    • GUI-Graphical User Interface
    • GUID-Globally Unique IDentifier
    • GWT-Google Web Toolkit

    H

    • HAL-Hardware Abstraction Layer
    • HBA-Host Bus Adapter
    • HCI-Human Computer Interaction
    • HD-High Density
    • HDD-Hard Disk Drive
    • HCL-Hardware Compatibility List
    • HD DVD-High Definition DVD
    • HDL-Hardware Description Language
    • HDMI-High-Definition Multimedia Interface
    • HF-High Frequency
    • HFS-Hierarchical File System
    • HHD-Hybrid Hard Drive
    • HID-Human Interface Device
    • HIG-Human Interface Guidelines
    • HIRD-Hurd of Interfaces Representing Depth
    • HLASM-High Level ASseMbler
    • HMA-High Memory Area
    • HP-Hewlett-Packard
    • HPC-High-Performance Computing
    • HPFS-High Performance File System
    • HSDPA-High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
    • HTC-High-Throughput Computing
    • HSM-Hierarchical Storage Management
    • HT-Hyper Threading
    • HTM-Hierarchical Temporal Memory
    • HTML-Hypertext Markup Language
    • HTTP-Hypertext Transfer Protocol
    • HTTPd-Hypertext Transport Protocol Daemon
    • HTX-HyperTransport eXpansion
    • HURD-Hird of Unix-Replacing Daemons
    • HVD-Holographic Versatile Disc
    • Hz-Hertz

    I

    • I²C-Inter-Integrated Circuit
    • I18N-Internationalization
    • IANA-Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
    • iBCS-Intel Binary Compatibility Standard
    • IBM-International Business Machines
    • IC-Integrated Circuit
    • ICANN-Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
    • ICE-In-Circuit Emulator
    • ICE-Intrusion Countermeasure Electronics
    • ICMP-Internet Control Message Protocol
    • ICP-Internet Cache Protocol
    • ICT-Information and Communication Technology
    • IDE-Integrated Development Environment
    • IDE-Integrated Drive Electronics
    • IDF-Intermediate Distribution Frame
    • IDL-Interface Definition Language
    • IDS-Intrusion Detection System
    • IE-Internet Explorer
    • IEC-International Electrotechnical Commission
    • IEEE-Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
    • IETF-Internet Engineering Task Force
    • IFL-Integrated Facility for Linux
    • IGMP-Internet Group Management Protocol
    • IGRP-Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
    • IHV-Independent Hardware Vendor
    • IIOP-Internet Inter-Orb Protocol
    • IIS-Internet Information Services
    • IL-Intermediate Language
    • IM-Instant Messaging
    • IMAP-Internet Message Access Protocol
    • IME-Input Method Editor
    • INFOSEC-Information Systems Security
    • I/O-Input/output
    • IoT-Internet of Things
    • IP-Intellectual Property
    • IP-Internet Protocol
    • IPC-Inter-Process Communication
    • IPL-Initial Program Load
    • IPO-Inter Procedural Optimization
    • IPP-Internet Printing Protocol
    • IPS-In-Plane Switching
    • IPS-Instructions Per Second
    • IPS-Intrusion Prevention System
    • IPsec-Internet Protocol security
    • IPTV-Internet Protocol Television
    • IPX-Internetwork Packet Exchange
    • IR-Intermediate Representation
    • IRC-Internet Relay Chat
    • IrDA-Infrared Data Association
    • IRI-Internationalized Resource Identifier
    • IRP-I/O Request Packet
    • IRQ-Interrupt Request
    • IS-Information Systems
    • ISA-Industry Standard Architecture
    • ISA-Instruction Set Architecture
    • ISAM-Indexed Sequential Access Method
    • ISC-Internet Storm Center
    • iSCSI-Internet Small Computer System Interface
    • ISDN-Integrated Services Digital Network
    • ISO-International Organization for Standardization
    • iSNS-Internet Storage Name Service
    • ISP-Internet Service Provider
    • ISPF-Interactive System Productivity Facility
    • ISR-Interrupt Service Routine
    • ISV-Independent Software Vendor
    • IT-Information Technology
    • ITIL-Information Technology Infrastructure Library
    • ITL-Interval Temporal Logic
    • ITU-International Telecommunication Union
    • IVRS-Interactive Voice Response System

    J

    • J2EE-Java 2 Enterprise Edition
    • J2ME-Java 2 Micro Edition
    • J2SE-Java 2 Standard Edition
    • JAXB-Java Architecture for XML Binding
    • JAX-RPC-Java XML for Remote Procedure Calls
    • JAXP-Java API for XML Processing
    • JBOD-Just a Bunch of Disks
    • JCE- Java Cryptography Extension
    • JCL-Job Control Language
    • JCP-Java Community Process
    • JDBC-Java Database Connectivity
    • JDK-Java Development Kit
    • JEE-Java Enterprise Edition
    • JES-Job Entry Subsystem
    • JDS-Java Desktop System
    • JFC-Java Foundation Classes
    • JFET-Junction Field-Effect Transistor
    • JFS-IBM Journaling File System
    • JINI-Jini Is Not Initials
    • JIT-Just-In-Time
    • JME-Java Micro Edition
    • JMX-Java Management Extensions
    • JMS-Java Message Service
    • JNDI-Java Naming and Directory Interface
    • JNI-Java Native Interface
    • JNZ-Jump non-zero
    • JPEG-Joint Photographic Experts Group
    • JRE-Java Runtime Environment
    • JS-JavaScript
    • JSE-Java Standard Edition
    • JSON-JavaScript Object Notation
    • JSP-Jackson Structured Programming
    • JSP-JavaServer Pages
    • JTAG-Joint Test Action Group
    • JUG-Java Users Group
    • JVM-Java Virtual Machine

    K

    • K&R-Kernighan and Ritchie
    • KB-Keyboard
    • Kb-Kilobit
    • KB-Kilobyte
    • KB-Knowledge Base
    • KDE-K Desktop Environment
    • kHz-Kilohertz
    • KM-Knowledge Machine
    • KRL-Knowledge Representation Language
    • KVM-Keyboard, Video, Mouse

    L

    • L10N-Localization
    • L2TP-Layer two Tunneling Protocol
    • LAMP-Linux Apache MySQL Perl
    • LAMP-Linux Apache MySQL PHP
    • LAMP-Linux Apache MySQL Python
    • LAN-Local Area Network
    • LBA-Logical Block Addressing
    • LCD-Liquid Crystal Display
    • LCR-Least Cost Routing
    • LCOS-Liquid Crystal On Silicon
    • LDAP-Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
    • LE-Logical Extents
    • LED-Light-Emitting Diode
    • LF-Line Feed
    • LF-Low Frequency
    • LFS-Linux From Scratch
    • LGPL-Lesser General Public License
    • LIB-LIBrary
    • LIF-Low Insertion Force
    • LIFO-Last In First Out
    • LILO-Linux Loader
    • LISP-LISt Processing
    • LKML-Linux Kernel Mailing List
    • LM-Lan Manager
    • LOC-Lines of Code
    • LPC-Lars Pensjö C
    • LPI-Linux Professional Institute
    • LPT- Line Print Terminal
    • LSB-Least Significant Bit
    • LSB-Linux Standard Base
    • LSI-Large-Scale Integration
    • LTL-Linear Temporal Logic
    • LTR-Left-to-Right
    • LUG-Linux User Group
    • LUN-Logical Unit Number
    • LV-Logical Volume
    • LVD-Low Voltage Differential
    • LVM-Logical Volume Management
    • LZW-Lempel-Ziv-Welch
    • LGA-Land Grid Array

    M

    • MAC-Mandatory Access Control
    • MAC-Media Access Control
    • MAN-Metropolitan Area Network
    • MANET-Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
    • MAPI-Messaging Application Programming Interface
    • Mb-Megabit
    • MB-Megabyte
    • MBCS-Multi Byte Character Set
    • MBD-Model-Based Design
    • MBR-Master Boot Record
    • MCA-Micro Channel Architecture
    • MCA-Microsoft Certified Architect
    • MCAD-Microsoft Certified Application Developer
    • MCAS-Microsoft Certified Application Specialist
    • MCDBA-Microsoft Certified DataBase Administrator
    • MCDST-Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician
    • MCITP-Microsoft Certified Information Technology Professional
    • MCM-Microsoft Certified Master
    • MCP-Microsoft Certified Professional
    • MCPD-Microsoft Certified Professional Developer
    • MCSA-Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator
    • MCSD-Microsoft Certified Solution Developer
    • MCSE-Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
    • MCT-Microsoft Certified Trainer
    • MCTS-Microsoft Certified Technology Specialist
    • MDA-Mail Delivery Agent
    • MDA-Model-Driven Architecture
    • MDA-Monochrome Display Adapter
    • MDD/MDSD-Model-Driven (Software) Development
    • MDF-Main Distribution Frame
    • MDI-Multiple Document Interface
    • ME-[Windows] Millennium Edition
    • MF-Medium Frequency
    • MFC-Microsoft Foundation Classes
    • MFM-Modified Frequency Modulation
    • MGCP-Media Gateway Control Protocol
    • MHz-Megahertz
    • MIB-Management Information Base
    • MICR-Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
    • MIDI-Musical Instrument Digital Interface
    • MIMD-Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data
    • MIMO-Multiple-Input Multiple-Output
    • MINIX-MIni-uNIX
    • MIPS-Million Instructions Per Second
    • MIPS-Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages
    • MIS-Management Information Systems
    • MISD-Multiple Instruction, Single Data
    • MIT-Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    • MIME-Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
    • MMDS-Mortality Medical Data System
    • MMI-Man Machine Interface.
    • MMIO-Memory-Mapped I/O
    • MMORPG-Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game
    • MMU-Memory Management Unit
    • MMX-Multi-Media Extensions
    • MNG-Multiple-image Network Graphics
    • MoBo-Motherboard
    • MOM-Message-Oriented Middleware
    • MOO-MUD Object Oriented
    • MOP-Meta-Object Protocol
    • MOS-Microsoft Office Specialist
    • MOSFET-Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
    • MOTD-Message Of The Day
    • MOUS-Microsoft Office User Specialist
    • MPAA-Motion Picture Association of America
    • MPEG-Motion Pictures Experts Group
    • MPL-Mozilla Public License
    • MPLS-Multiprotocol Label Switching
    • MPU-Microprocessor Unit
    • MS-Memory Stick
    • MS-Microsoft
    • MSB-Most Significant Bit
    • MS-DOS-Microsoft DOS
    • MT-Machine Translation
    • MTA-Mail Transfer Agent
    • MTA-Microsoft Technology Associate
    • MTBF-Mean Time Between Failures
    • MTU-Maximum Transmission Unit
    • MSA-Mail Submission Agent
    • MSDN-Microsoft Developer Network
    • MSI-Medium-Scale Integration
    • MSI-Message Signaled Interrupt
    • MSI-Microsoft Installer
    • MUA-Mail User Agent
    • MUD-Multi-User Dungeon
    • MVC-Model-View-Controller
    • MVP-Most Valuable Professional
    • MVS-Multiple Virtual Storage
    • MX-Mail exchange
    • MXF-Material Exchange Format

    N

    • NACK-Negative ACKnowledgement
    • NAK-Negative AcKnowledge Character
    • NaN-Not a Number
    • NAS-Network-Attached Storage
    • NASM-Netwide ASseMbler
    • NAT-Network Address Translation
    • NCP-NetWare Core Protocol
    • NCQ-Native Command Queuing
    • NCSA-National Center for Supercomputing Applications
    • NDPS-Novell Distributed Print Services
    • NDS-Novell Directory Services
    • NEP-Network Equipment Provider
    • NetBIOS-Network Basic Input/Output System
    • NEXT-Near-End CrossTalk
    • NFA-Nondeterministic Finite Automaton
    • NFC-Near field communication
    • NFS-Network File System
    • NGL-aNGeL
    • NGSCB-Next-Generation Secure Computing Base
    • NI-National Instruments
    • NIC-Network Interface Controller
    • NIM-No Internal Message
    • NIO-New I/O
    • NIST-National Institute of Standards and Technology
    • NLP-Natural Language Processing
    • NLS-Native Language Support
    • NMI-Non-Maskable Interrupt
    • NP-Nondeterministic Polynomial time
    • NPL-Netscape Public License
    • NPU-Network Processing Unit
    • NS-Netscape
    • NSA-National Security Agency
    • NSPR-Netscape Portable Runtime
    • NNTP-Network News Transfer Protocol
    • NOC-Network Operations Center
    • NOP-No OPeration
    • NOS-Network Operating System
    • NPTL-Native POSIX Thread Library
    • NSS-Novell Storage Service
    • NSS-Network Security Services
    • NSS-Name Service Switch
    • NT-New Technology
    • NTFS-NT Filesystem
    • NTLM-NT Lan Manager
    • NTP-Network Time Protocol
    • NUMA-Non-Uniform Memory Access
    • NURBS-Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline
    • NVR-Network Video Recorder
    • NVRAM-Non-Volatile Random Access Memory

    O

    • OASIS-Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards
    • OAT-Operational Acceptance Testing
    • OBSAI-Open Base Station Architecture Initiative
    • ODBC-Open DataBase Connectivity
    • OEM-Original Equipment Manufacturer
    • OES-Open Enterprise Server
    • OFTC-Open and Free Technology Community
    • OID-Object Identifier
    • OLAP-Online Analytical Processing
    • OLE-Object Linking and Embedding
    • OLED-Organic Light Emitting Diode
    • OLPC-One Laptop per Child
    • OLTP-Online Transaction Processing
    • OMF-Object Module Format
    • OMG-Object Management Group
    • OMR-Optical Mark Recognition
    • OO-Object-Oriented
    • OO-OpenOffice
    • OOE-Out-of-Order Execution
    • OOM-Out Of Memory
    • OOo-OpenOffice.org
    • OoOE-Out-of-Order Execution
    • OOP-Object-Oriented Programming
    • OOTB-Out of the box
    • OPML-Outline Processor Markup Language
    • ORB-Object Request Broker
    • ORM-Oject-Relational Mapping
    • OS-Open Source
    • OS-Operating System
    • OSCON-O'Reilly Open Source CONvention
    • OSDN-Open Source Developer Network
    • OSI-Open Source Initiative
    • OSI-Open Systems Interconnection
    • OSPF-Open Shortest Path First
    • OSS-Open Sound System
    • OSS-Open-Source Software
    • OSS-Operations Support System
    • OSTG-Open Source Technology Group
    • OUI-Organizationally Unique Identifier

    P

    • P2P-Peer-To-Peer
    • PaaS-Platform as a Service
    • PAN-Personal Area Network
    • PAP-Password Authentication Protocol
    • PARC-Palo Alto Research Center
    • PATA-Parallel ATA
    • PBS-Portable Batch System
    • PC-Personal Computer
    • PCB-Printed Circuit Board
    • PCB-Process Control Block
    • PC DOS-Personal Computer Disk Operating System
    • PCI-Peripheral Component Interconnect
    • PCIe-PCI Express
    • PCL-Printer Command Language
    • PCMCIA-Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
    • PCM-Pulse-Code Modulation
    • PCRE-Perl Compatible Regular Expressions
    • PD-Public Domain
    • PDA-Personal Digital Assistant
    • PDF-Portable Document Format
    • PDH-Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
    • PDP-Programmed Data Processor
    • PE-Physical Extents
    • PERL-Practical Extraction and Reporting Language
    • PGA-Pin Grid Array
    • PGA-Programmable Gate Array
    • PGO-Profile-Guided Optimization
    • PGP-Pretty Good Privacy
    • PHP-PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
    • PIC-Peripheral Interface Controller
    • PIC-Programmable Interrupt Controller
    • PID-Proportional-Integral-Derivative
    • PID-Process ID
    • PIM-Personal Information Manager
    • PINE-Program for Internet News and Email
    • PIM-Platform Independent Model
    • PIO-Programmed Input/Output
    • PKCS-Public Key Cryptography Standards
    • PKI-Public Key Infrastructure
    • PLC-Power Line Communication
    • PLC-Programmable Logic Controller
    • PLD-Programmable Logic Device
    • PL/I-Programming Language One
    • PL/M-Programming Language for Microcomputers
    • PL/P-Programming Language for Prime
    • PLT-Power Line Telecoms
    • PMM-POST Memory Manager
    • PNG-Portable Network Graphics
    • PnP-Plug-and-Play
    • PoE-Power over Ethernet
    • POID-Persistent Object Identifier
    • POJO-Plain Old Java Object
    • POP-Point of Presence
    • POP3-Post Office Protocol v3
    • POSIX-Portable Operating System Interface, formerly IEEE-IX
    • POST-Power-On Self Test
    • PPC-PowerPC
    • PPI-Pixels Per Inch
    • PPP-Point-to-Point Protocol
    • PPPoA-PPP over ATM
    • PPPoE-PPP over Ethernet
    • PPTP-Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
    • PS-PostScript
    • PS/2-Personal System/2
    • PSA-Professional Services Automation
    • PSM-Platform Specific Model
    • PSU-Power Supply Unit
    • PSVI-Post-Schema-Validation Infoset
    • PTS-DOS-PhysTechSoft - Disk Operating System
    • PV-Physical Volume
    • PVG-Physical Volume Group
    • PVR-Personal Video Recorder
    • PXE-Preboot Execution Environment
    • PXI-PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation

    Q

    • QDR-Quad Data Rate
    • QA-Quality Assurance
    • QFP-Quad Flat Package
    • QoS-Quality of Service
    • QOTD-Quote of the Day
    • Qt-Quasar Toolkit
    • QTAM-Queued Teleprocessing Access Method

    R

    • RACF-Resource Access Control Facility
    • RAD-Rapid Application Development
    • RADIUS-Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
    • RAID-Redundant Array of Independent Disks
    • RAID-Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
    • RAII-Resource Acquisition Is Initialization
    • RAIT-Redundant Array of Inexpensive Tapes
    • RAM-Random Access Memory
    • RARP-Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
    • RAS-Reliability, Availability and Serviceability
    • RAS-Remote Access Service
    • RRAS-Routing and Remote Access Service
    • RC-Region Code
    • RC-Release Candidate
    • RC-Run Commands
    • RCS-Revision Control System
    • RDBMS-Relational Database Management System
    • RDC-Remote Desktop Connection
    • RDF-Resource Description Framework
    • RDM-Relational Data Model
    • RDOS-Real-time Disk Operating System
    • RDS-Remote Data Services
    • REFAL-Recursive Functions Algorithmic Language
    • REST-Representational State Transfer
    • regex-Regular Expression
    • regexp-Regular Expression
    • RF-Radio Frequency
    • RFC-Request For Comments
    • RFI-Radio Frequency Interference
    • RFID-Radio Frequency Identification
    • RGB-Red, Green, Blue
    • RGBA-Red, Green, Blue, Alpha
    • RHL-Red Hat Linux
    • RHEL-Red Hat Enterprise Linux
    • RIA-Rich Internet Application
    • RIAA-Recording Industry Association of America
    • RIP-Raster Image Processor
    • RIP-Routing Information Protocol
    • RIR-Regional Internet registry
    • RISC-Reduced Instruction Set Computer
    • RISC OS-Reduced Instruction Set Computer Operating System
    • RJE-Remote Job Entry
    • RLE-Run-Length Encoding
    • RLL-Run-Length Limited
    • RMI-Remote Method Invocation
    • RMS-Richard Matthew Stallman
    • ROM-Read Only Memory
    • ROMB-Read-Out Motherboard
    • ROM-DOS-Read Only Memory - Disk Operating System
    • RPC-Remote Procedure Call
    • RPG-Report Program Generator
    • RPM-RPM Package Manager
    • RSA-Rivest Shamir Adleman
    • RSI-Repetitive Strain Injury
    • RSS-Radio Service Software
    • RSS-Rich Site Summary, RDF Site Summary, or Really Simple Syndication
    • RTAI-Real-Time Application Interface
    • RTC-Real-Time Clock
    • RTE-Real-Time Enterprise
    • RTEMS-Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems
    • RTL-Right-to-Left
    • RTOS-Real-Time Operating System
    • RTP-Real-time Transport Protocol
    • RTS-Ready To Send
    • RTSP-Real Time Streaming Protocol
    • RTTI-Run-time Type Information

    S

    • SaaS-Software as a Service
    • SAN-Storage Area Network
    • SAS-Serial attached SCSI
    • SATA-Serial ATA
    • SAX-Simple API for XML
    • SBOD-Spinning Beachball of Death
    • SBP-2-Serial Bus Protocol 2
    • sbin-superuser binary
    • SBU-Standard Build Unit
    • SCADA-Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
    • SCID-Source Code in Database
    • SCM-Software Configuration Management
    • SCM-Source Code Management
    • SCP-Secure Copy
    • SCPI-Standard Commands for Programmable Instrumentation
    • SCSI-Small Computer System Interface
    • SCTP-Stream Control Transmission Protocol
    • SD-Secure Digital
    • SDDL-Security Descriptor Definition Language
    • SDH-Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
    • SDI-Single Document Interface
    • SDIO-Secure Digital Input Output
    • SDK-Software Development Kit
    • SDL-Simple DirectMedia Layer
    • SDN-Service Delivery Network
    • SDP-Session Description Protocol
    • SDR-Software-Defined Radio
    • SDRAM-Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
    • SDSL-Symmetric DSL
    • SE-Single Ended
    • SEI-Software Engineering Institute
    • SEO-Search Engine Optimization
    • SFTP-Secure FTP
    • SFTP-Simple File Transfer Protocol
    • SFTP-SSH File Transfer Protocol
    • SGI-Silicon Graphics, Incorporated
    • SGML-Standard Generalized Markup Language
    • SGR-Select Graphic Rendition
    • SHA-Secure Hash Algorithm
    • SHDSL-Single-pair High-speed Digital Subscriber Line
    • SIGCAT-Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications and Technology
    • SIGGRAPH-Special Interest Group on Graphics
    • SIMD-Single Instruction, Multiple Data
    • SIMM-Single Inline Memory Module
    • SIP-Session Initiation Protocol
    • SIP-Supplementary Ideographic Plane
    • SISD-Single Instruction, Single Data
    • SISO-Single-Input and Single-Output
    • SLED-SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop
    • SLES-SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
    • SLI-Scalable Link Interface
    • SLIP-Serial Line Internet Protocol
    • SLM-Service Level Management
    • SLOC-Source Lines of Code
    • SPM-Software project management
    • SPMD-Single Program, Multiple Data
    • SMA-SubMiniature version A
    • SMB-Server Message Block
    • SMBIOS-System Management BIOS
    • SMIL-Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
    • S/MIME-Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
    • SMP-Supplementary Multilingual Plane
    • SMP-Symmetric Multi-Processing
    • SMS-Short Message Service
    • SMS-System Management Server
    • SMT-Simultaneous Multithreading
    • SMTP-Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
    • SNA-Systems Network Architecture
    • SNMP-Simple Network Management Protocol
    • SNTP-Simple Network Time Protocol
    • SOA-Service-Oriented Architecture
    • SOAP-Simple Object Access Protocol
    • SOAP-Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program
    • SOPA-Stop Online Piracy Act
    • SoC-System-on-a-Chip
    • SO-DIMM-Small Outline DIMM
    • SOE-Standard Operating Environment
    • SOHO-Small Office/Home Office
    • SOI-Silicon On Insulator
    • SP-Service Pack
    • SPA-Single Page Application
    • SPF-Sender Policy Framework
    • SPI-Serial Peripheral Interface
    • SPI-Stateful Packet Inspection
    • SPARC-Scalable Processor Architecture
    • SQL-Structured Query Language
    • SRAM-Static Random Access Memory
    • SSA-Static Single Assignment
    • SSD-Software Specification Document
    • SSD-Solid-State Drive
    • SSE-Streaming SIMD Extensions
    • SSH-Secure Shell
    • SSI-Server Side Includes
    • SSI-Single-System Image
    • SSI-Small-Scale Integration
    • SSID-Service Set Identifier
    • SSL-Secure Socket Layer
    • SSP-Supplementary Special-purpose Plane
    • SSSE-Supplementary Streaming SIMD Extensions
    • su-superuser
    • SUS-Single UNIX Specification
    • SUSE-Software und System-Entwicklung
    • SVC-Scalable Video Coding
    • SVG-Scalable Vector Graphics
    • SVGA-Super Video Graphics Array
    • SVD-Structured VLSI Design
    • SWF-Shock Wave Flash
    • SWT-Standard Widget Toolkit
    • Sysop-System operator

    T

    • TAO-Track-At-Once
    • TASM-Turbo ASseMbler
    • TB-TeraByte
    • Tcl-Tool Command Language
    • TCP-Transmission Control Protocol
    • TCP/IP-Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    • TCU-Telecommunication Control Unit
    • TDMA-Time Division Multiple Access
    • TFT-Thin Film Transistor
    • TFTP-Trivial File Transfer Protocol
    • TI-Texas Instruments
    • TLA-Three-Letter Acronym
    • TLD-Top-Level Domain
    • TLS-Thread-Local Storage
    • TLS-Transport Layer Security
    • TLV-Type-length-value
    • tmp-temporary
    • TNC-Terminal Node Controller
    • TNC-Threaded Neill-Concelman connector
    • TPF-Transaction Processing Facility
    • TROFF-Trace Off
    • TRON-Trace On
    • TRON-The Real-time Operating system Nucleus
    • TRS-DOS-Tandy Radio Shack - Disk Operating System
    • TSO-Time Sharing Option
    • TSP-Traveling Salesman Problem
    • TSR-Terminate and Stay Resident
    • TTA-True Tap Audio
    • TTF-TrueType Font
    • TTL-Transistor-Transistor Logic
    • TTL-Time To Live
    • TTS-Text-to-Speech
    • TTY-Teletype
    • TUCOWS-The Ultimate Collection of Winsock Software
    • TUG-TeX Users Group
    • TWAIN-Technology Without An Interesting Name

    U

    • UAAG-User Agent Accessibility Guidelines
    • UAC-User Account Control
    • UART-Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
    • UAT-User Acceptance Testing
    • UCS-Universal Character Set
    • UDDI-Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration
    • UDMA-Ultra DMA
    • UDP-User Datagram Protocol
    • UEFI-Unified Extensible Firmware Interface
    • UHF-Ultra High Frequency
    • UI-User Interface
    • UL-Upload
    • ULA-Uncommitted Logic Array
    • UMA-Upper Memory Area
    • UMB-Upper Memory Block
    • UML-Unified Modeling Language
    • UML-User-Mode Linux
    • UMPC-Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer
    • UNC-Universal Naming Convention
    • UPS-Uninterruptible Power Supply
    • URI-Uniform Resource Identifier
    • URL-Uniform Resource Locator
    • URN-Uniform Resource Name
    • USB-Universal Serial Bus
    • usr-user
    • USR-U.S. Robotics
    • UTC-Coordinated Universal Time
    • UTF-Unicode Transformation Format
    • UTP-Unshielded Twisted Pair
    • UUCP-Unix to Unix Copy
    • UUID-Universally Unique Identifier
    • UUN-Universal User Name
    • UVC-Universal Virtual Computer
    • UX-User Experience

    V

    • var-variable
    • VAX-Virtual Address eXtension
    • VCPI-Virtual Control Program Interface
    • VR-Virtual Reality
    • VRML-Virtual Reality Modeling Language
    • VB-Visual Basic
    • VBA-Visual Basic for Applications
    • VBS-Visual Basic Script
    • VDSL-Very High Bitrate Digital Subscriber Line
    • VESA-Video Electronics Standards Association
    • VFAT-Virtual FAT
    • VFS-Virtual File System
    • VG-Volume Group
    • VGA-Video Graphics Array
    • VGA-Video Graphics Adapter
    • VHF-Very High Frequency
    • VLAN-Virtual Local Area Network
    • VLSM-Variable Length Subnet Mask
    • VLB-Vesa Local Bus
    • VLF-Very Low Frequency
    • VLIW-Very Long Instruction Word
    • VLSI-Very-Large-Scale Integration
    • VM-Virtual Machine
    • VM-Virtual Memory
    • VNC-Virtual Network Computing
    • VOD-Video On Demand
    • VoIP-Voice over Internet Protocol
    • VPN-Virtual Private Network
    • VPU-Visual Processing Unit
    • VSAM-Virtual Storage Access Method
    • VSAT-Very Small Aperture Terminal
    • VT-Video Terminal?
    • VTAM-Virtual Telecommunications Access Method

    W

    • W3C-World Wide Web Consortium
    • WWDC-Apple World Wide Developer Conference
    • WAFS-Wide Area File Services
    • WAI-Web Accessibility Initiative
    • WAIS-Wide Area Information Server
    • WAN-Wide Area Network
    • WAP-Wireless Access Point
    • WAP-Wireless Application Protocol
    • WASM-Watcom ASseMbler
    • WBEM-Web-Based Enterprise Management
    • WCAG-Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
    • WCF-Windows Communication Foundation
    • WDM-Wavelength-Division Multiplexing
    • WebDAV-WWW Distributed Authoring and Versioning
    • WEP-Wired Equivalent Privacy
    • WFI-Wait For Interrupt
    • WiMAX-Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
    • WinFS-Windows Future Storage
    • WINS-Windows Internet Name Service
    • WLAN-Wireless Local Area Network
    • WMA-Windows Media Audio
    • WMV-Windows Media Video
    • WOL-Wake-on-LAN
    • WOR-Wake-on-Ring
    • WORA-Write once, run anywhere
    • WORE-Write once, run everywhere
    • WPA-Wi-Fi Protected Access
    • WPAN-Wireless Personal Area Network
    • WPF-Windows Presentation Foundation
    • WSDL-Web Services Description Language
    • WSFL-Web Services Flow Language
    • WUSB-Wireless Universal Serial Bus
    • WWAN-Wireless Wide Area Network
    • WWID-World Wide Identifier
    • WWN-World Wide Name
    • WWW-World Wide Web
    • WYSIWYG-What You See Is What You Get
    • WZC-Wireless Zero Configuration

    X

    • XAG-XML Accessibility Guidelines
    • XAML-eXtensible Application Markup Language
    • XDM-X Window Display Manager
    • XDMCP-X Display Manager Control Protocol
    • XCBL-XML Common Business Library
    • XHTML-eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language
    • XILP-X Interactive ListProc
    • XML-eXtensible Markup Language
    • XMMS-X Multimedia System
    • XMPP-eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
    • XMS-Extended Memory Specification
    • XNS-Xerox Network Systems
    • XP-Cross-Platform
    • XP-Extreme Programming
    • XPCOM-Cross Platform Component Object Model
    • XPI-XPInstall
    • XPIDL-Cross-Platform IDL
    • XPS- XML Paper Specification
    • XSD-XML Schema Definition
    • XSL-eXtensible Stylesheet Language
    • XSL-FO-eXtensible Stylesheet Language Formatting Objects
    • XSLT-eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations
    • XSS-Cross-Site Scripting
    • XTF-eXtensible Tag Framework
    • XTF-eXtended Triton Format
    • XUL-XML User Interface Language
    • XVGA-Extended Video Graphics Adapter

    Y

    • Y2K-Year Two Thousand
    • YAAF-Yet Another Application Framework
    • YACC-Yet Another Compiler Compiler
    • YAML-YAML Ain't Markup Language
    • YaST-Yet another Setup Tool

    Z

    • ZCAV-Zone Constant Angular Velocity
    • ZCS-Zero Code Suppression
    • ZIF-Zero Insertion Force
    • ZIFS-Zero Insertion Force Socket
    • ZISC-Zero Instruction Set Computer
    • ZOI-Zero One Infinity
    • ZOPE-Z Object Publishing Environment
    • ZMA-Zone Multicast Address
    • ZPL-Z-level Programming Language

    Run Commands






    Run Commands

    A lengthy list of shortcuts, some are obvious, some are not. Here's my list:
    Run Commands
    compmgmt.msc - Computer management
    devmgmt.msc - Device manager
    diskmgmt.msc - Disk management
    dfrg.msc - Disk defrag
    eventvwr.msc - Event viewer
    fsmgmt.msc - Shared folders
    gpedit.msc - Group policies
    lusrmgr.msc - Local users and groups
    perfmon.msc - Performance monitor
    rsop.msc - Resultant set of policies
    secpol.msc - Local security settings
    services.msc - Various Services
    msconfig - System Configuration Utility
    regedit - Registry Editor
    msinfo32 _ System Information
    sysedit _ System Edit
    win.ini _ windows loading information(also system.ini)
    winver _ Shows current version of windows
    mailto: _ Opens default email client
    command _ Opens command prompt
    msimn - opens outlook express
    outlook - opens microsoft outlook
    icwconn1 - opens the create a new connection wizard

    Run Commands to access the control panel
    Add/Remove Programs control appwiz.cpl
    Date/Time Properties control timedate.cpl
    Display Properties control desk.cpl
    FindFast control findfast.cpl
    Fonts Folder control fonts
    Internet Properties control inetcpl.cpl
    Keyboard Properties control main.cpl keyboard
    Mouse Properties control main.cpl
    Multimedia Properties control mmsys.cpl
    Network Properties control netcpl.cpl or ncpa.cpl
    Password Properties control password.cpl
    Printers Folder control printers
    Sound Properties control mmsys.cpl sounds
    System Properties control sysdm.cpl

    Command Prompt
    ANSI.SYS Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys.
    APPEND Causes MS-DOS to look in other directories when editing a file or running a command.
    ARP Displays, adds, and removes arp information from network devices.
    ASSIGN Assign a drive letter to an alternate letter.
    ASSOC View the file associations.
    AT Schedule a time to execute commands or programs.
    ATMADM Lists connections and addresses seen by Windows ATM call manager.
    ATTRIB Display and change file attributes.
    BATCH Recovery console command that executes a series of commands in a file.
    BOOTCFG Recovery console command that allows a user to view, modify, and rebuild the boot.ini
    BREAK Enable / disable CTRL + C feature.
    CACLS View and modify file ACL's.
    CALL Calls a batch file from another batch file.
    CD Changes directories.
    CHCP Supplement the International keyboard and character set information.
    CHDIR Changes directories.
    CHKNTFS Check the hard disk drive running NTFS for errors.
    CHOICE Specify a listing of multiple options within a batch file
    . CLS Clears the screen.
    CMD Opens the command interpreter.
    COLOR Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.
    COMP Compares files.
    COMPACT Compresses and uncompress files.
    CONTROL Open control panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.
    CONVERT Convert FAT to NTFS.
    COPY Copy one or more files to an alternate location.
    CTTY Change the computers input/output devices.
    DATE View or change the systems date.
    DEBUG Debug utility to create assembly programs to modify hardware settings.
    DEFRAG Re-arrange the hard disk drive to help with loading programs.
    DEL Deletes one or more files.
    DELETE Recovery console command that deletes a file.
    DELTREE Deletes one or more files and/or directories.
    DIR List the contents of one or more directory.
    DISABLE Recovery console command that disables Windows system services or drivers.
    DISKCOMP Compare a disk with another disk.
    DISKCOPY Copy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk.
    DOSKEY Command to view and execute commands that have been run in the past.
    DOSSHELL A GUI to help with early MS-DOS users.
    DRIVPARM Enables overwrite of original device drivers.
    ECHO Displays messages and enables and disables echo.
    EDIT View and edit files.
    EDLIN View and edit files.
    EMM386 Load extended Memory Manager.
    ENABLE Recovery console command to enable a disable service or driver.
    ENDLOCAL Stops the localization of the environment changes enabled by the setlocal command.
    ERASE Erase files from computer.
    EXIT Exit from the command interpreter.
    EXPAND Expand a Microsoft Windows file back to it's original format.
    EXTRACT Extract files from the Microsoft Windows cabinets.
    FASTHELP Displays a listing of MS-DOS commands and information about them.
    FC Compare files.
    FDISK Utility used to create partitions on the hard disk drive.
    FIND Search for text within a file.
    FINDSTR Searches for a string of text within a file.
    FIXBOOT Writes a new boot sector.
    FIXMBR Writes a new boot record to a disk drive.
    FOR Boolean used in batch files.
    FORMAT Command to erase and prepare a disk drive.
    FTP Command to connect and operate on a FTP server.
    FTYPE Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.
    GOTO Moves a batch file to a specific label or location.
    GRAFTABL Show extended characters in graphics mode.
    HELP Display a listing of commands and brief explanation.
    IF Allows for batch files to perform conditional processing.
    IFSHLP.SYS 32-bit file manager.
    IPCONFIG Network command to view network adapter settings and assigned values.
    KEYB Change layout of keyboard.
    LABEL Change the label of a disk drive.
    LH Load a device driver in to high memory.
    LISTSVC Recovery console command that displays the services and drivers.
    LOADFIX Load a program above the first 64k.
    LOADHIGH Load a device driver in to high memory.
    LOCK Lock the hard disk drive.
    LOGON Recovery console command to list installations and enable administrator login.
    MAP Displays the device name of a drive.
    MD Command to create a new directory.
    MEM Display memory on system.
    MKDIR Command to create a new directory.
    MODE Modify the port or display settings.
    MORE Display one page at a time.
    MOVE Move one or more files from one directory to another directory.
    MSAV Early Microsoft Virus scanner.
    MSD Diagnostics utility.
    MSCDEX Utility used to load and provide access to the CD-ROM.
    NBTSTAT Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT
    NET Update, fix, or view the network or network settings
    NETSH Configure dynamic and static network information from MS-DOS.
    NETSTAT Display the TCP/IP network protocol statistics and information.
    NLSFUNC Load country specific information.
    NSLOOKUP Look up an IP address of a domain or host on a network.
    PATH View and modify the computers path location.
    PATHPING View and locate locations of network latency.
    PAUSE Command used in batch files to stop the processing of a command.
    PING Test / send information to another network computer or network device.
    POPD Changes to the directory or network path stored by the pushd command.
    POWER Conserve power with computer portables.
    PRINT Prints data to a printer port.
    PROMPT View and change the MS-DOS prompt.
    PUSHD Stores a directory or network path in memory so it can be returned to at any time.
    QBASIC Open the QBasic.
    RD Removes an empty directory.
    REN Renames a file or directory.
    RENAME Renames a file or directory.
    RMDIR Removes an empty directory.
    ROUTE View and configure windows network route tables.
    RUNAS Enables a user to execute a program on another computer.
    SCANDISK Run the scandisk utility.
    SCANREG Scan registry and recover registry from errors.
    SET Change one variable or string to another.
    SETLOCAL Enables local environments to be changed without affecting anything else.
    SETVER Change MS-DOS version to trick older MS-DOS programs.
    SHARE Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities.
    SHIFT Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch program.
    SHUTDOWN Shutdown the computer from the MS-DOS prompt.
    SMARTDRV Create a disk cache in conventional memory or extended memory.
    SORT Sorts the input and displays the output to the screen.
    START Start a separate window in Windows from the MS-DOS prompt.
    SUBST Substitute a folder on your computer for another drive letter.
    SWITCHES Remove add functions from MS-DOS.
    SYS Transfer system files to disk drive.
    TELNET Telnet to another computer / device from the prompt.
    TIME View or modify the system time.
    TITLE Change the title of their MS-DOS window.
    TRACERT Visually view a network packets route across a network.
    TREE View a visual tree of the hard disk drive.
    TYPE Display the contents of a file.
    UNDELETE Undelete a file that has been deleted.
    UNFORMAT Unformat a hard disk drive.
    UNLOCK Unlock a disk drive.
    VER Display the version information.
    VERIFY Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been written properly.
    VOL Displays the volume information about the designated drive.
    XCOPY Copy multiple files, directories, and/or drives from one location to another.
    TRUENAME When placed before a file, will display the whole directory in which it exists
    TASKKILL It allows you to kill those unneeded or locked up applications
    permalink

    Windows XP Shortcuts
    ALT+- (ALT+hyphen) Displays the Multiple Document Interface (MDI) child window's System menu
    ALT+ENTER View properties for the selected item
    ALT+ESC Cycle through items in the order they were opened
    ALT+F4 Close the active item, or quit the active program
    ALT+SPACEBAR Display the System menu for the active window
    ALT+TAB Switch between open items
    ALT+Underlined letter Display the corresponding menu
    BACKSPACE View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer
    CTRL+A Select all
    CTRL+B Bold
    CTRL+C Copy
    CTRL+I Italics
    CTRL+O Open an item
    CTRL+U Underline
    CTRL+V Paste
    CTRL+X Cut
    CTRL+Z Undo
    CTRL+F4 Close the active document
    CTRL while dragging Copy selected item
    CTRL+SHIFT while dragging Create shortcut to selected iteM
    CTRL+RIGHT ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word
    CTRL+LEFT ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word
    CTRL+DOWN ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph
    CTRL+UP ARROW Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph
    SHIFT+DELETE Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin
    ESC Cancel the current task
    F1 Displays Help
    F2 Rename selected item
    F3 Search for a file or folder
    F4 Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer
    F5 Refresh the active window
    F6 Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop
    F10 Activate the menu bar in the active program
    SHIFT+F10 Display the shortcut menu for the selected item
    CTRL+ESC Display the Start menu
    SHIFT+CTRL+ESC Launches Task Manager
    SHIFT when you insert a CD Prevent the CD from automatically playing
    WIN Display or hide the Start menu
    WIN+BREAK Display the System Properties dialog box
    WIN+D Minimizes all Windows and shows the Desktop
    WIN+E Open Windows Explorer
    WIN+F Search for a file or folder
    WIN+F+CTRL Search for computers
    WIN+L Locks the desktop
    WIN+M Minimize or restore all windows
    WIN+R Open the Run dialog box
    WIN+TAB Switch between open items

    Windows Explorer Shortcuts
    ALT+SPACEBAR - Display the current window�s system menu
    SHIFT+F10 - Display the item's context menu
    CTRL+ESC - Display the Start menu
    ALT+TAB - Switch to the window you last used
    ALT+F4 - Close the current window or quit
    CTRL+A - Select all items
    CTRL+X - Cut selected item(s)
    CTRL+C - Copy selected item(s)
    CTRL+V - Paste item(s)
    CTRL+Z - Undo last action
    CTRL+(+) - Automatically resize the columns in the right hand pane
    TAB - Move forward through options
    ALT+RIGHT ARROW - Move forward to a previous view
    ALT+LEFT ARROW - Move backward to a previous view
    SHIFT+DELETE - Delete an item immediately
    BACKSPACE - View the folder one level up
    ALT+ENTER - View an item�s properties
    F10 - Activate the menu bar in programs
    F6 - Switch between left and right panes
    F5 - Refresh window contents
    F3 - Display Find application
    F2 - Rename selected item

    Miscellaneous






    Miscellaneous

    1. When you Shift+Right click a file in Windows, additional options appear in the context menu; the most useful of which being "Copy as path."
    2. Ctrl+Backspace deletes the entire word, Alt+Backspace undoes.
    3. When watching a movie on vlc player if the audio isn't lined up simply press "k" to back up the audio accordingly.
    4. Resource Monitor > Task Manager. Search for "Resource Monitor" from the windows search bar and pick it (Vista: "Reliability and Performance Monitor").
    5. Get WinDirStat (Linux: KDirStat, OSX: Disk Inventory X). It makes clearing out the junk from your computer so much easier.
    6. Want to explain a tech problem to someone? Search for "psr" from the windows search bar. (Windows 7+)
    7. Dual monitors? Can't tile your windows on the second monitor? Use Windows Key + Arrow Keys to snap the windows to each side of either monitor. Also Shift+Windows Key+Arrows moves a program from screen to screen.
    8. Malwarebytes and Microsoft Security Essentials will get rid of just about any virus/malware on a computer.
      Some malware makes it hard to install these things and disables task manager, so go get Process Explorer (fancy task manager).
      If you can't run something on an infected PC, change its file name. A lot of malware prevents things named "mbam.exe" or "procexp.exe" from running but won't stop "mbamjkafk.exe" or "procexp2.exe" from running.
      If you can't get to google.com on an infected PC, try google.co.uk, or google.cm.
      Cleaning an infected PC=> ComboFix, Rkill, TDSSKiller, HiJack This, unhide.exe, Kellys Korner Reg Fixes, SuperAntiSpyware, HitMan Pro, SpyBot S&D, hirens boot cd, ophcrack, use these bunch of apps and clean your PC..
    9. When you search for a driver for a device in the Device Manager, look up the hardware-id:
      Right-click on the device -> Properties -> Details -> Hardware-id's
      Copy paste one of the values in google, odds are it pops up at least the device name, sometimes even the driver.
    10. Windows + L every single time you walk away from your computer.
    11. Do not create a user called Con, it breaks your windows.
      "CON" is a reserved name that dates back to the days of MS-DOS and is short for "CONsole". The idea is that any program could write to the screen or read from the keyboard simply by opening and acting on a file by the name of CON. Try this sometime in a Windows Command Prompt:

      COPY readme.txt CON

      For our example "readme.txt" is any convenient text file you have laying about. That will cause the file to be "copied to the console" - i.e., displayed on the screen. Other possibly reserved filenames include things like COM1, COM2, and so on for your serial or modem ports, and LPT1, LPT2 and so on for printer ports.
    12. In browsers (I've used FireFox, Chrome and Opera), CTRL + number (ie, CTRL 1, CTRL 2) will switch over to that tab. Or you can generally cycle through with CTRL + TAB.
    13. When googling for your problem add the term "[solved]"
    14. You can use the Pause/Break key to pause the boot-up process if you need to get some info off the BIOS boot-screen. Such as which hard-drives are being detected, etc. Makes it much better than, "Did the hard drive I'm looking for come up? I don't know, let's reboot over and over until we catch it."
    15. There are free versions of many applications you want to buy. Always check for open source software.
      Here is a pertinent website: http://alternativeto.net/
    16. When you have a computer problem, unplug it and then plug it back in again before you bother anyone about it.
    17. shutdown -s -t -f
      Shutdowns your computer after seconds, Force shutdown, so it doesn't stop with "[program] is not closing. Do you want to close it now?"
    18. Dragging a program on Windows 7 taskbar upwards opens the right-click menu.
      Also when multiple windows are open, drag and shake the title bar of a window, and others will be minimized.

    Web Browsing Tricks






    Web Browsing Tricks

    Automatically add www. and .com to a URL You can shave off a couple of seconds typing in a URL by simply click CTRL + Enter after you type the name of the site. Need .net instead of .com, press CTRL + Shift + Enter instead.

    Jump to address bar There are a number of ways to jump right to the address bar from anywhere in browser. Pressing CTRL + L, F6, and ALT + D all accomplish this goal. Bring back a closed tab We covered this already, but it's super useful. Accidentally closed a tab? Simply press CTRL + Shift + T to reopen the most recently closed tab and get back to what you were doing.

    Use private browsing The uses for not having cookies and history saved are obvious for certain activities, you know, like shopping for gifts on a shared computer (of course!). Pressing CTRL + Shift + N will launch a new private in Chrome, CTRL + Shift + P will do it in Firefox and Internet Explorer.



    Cycle through open tabs Pressing CTRL + TAB while in a browser will flip between each one. This can be much faster than moving the mouse and clicking on a tab. CTRL + NUM (1, 2, 3, 4, n..) will also take you to certain tab in that numeric order.

    Keyboard Shortcuts






    Keyboard Shortcuts

    Copy only active window to clipboard Normally, the Print Screen key copies the entire display (or two displays if you got them), ALT + Print Screen only copies the currently active window to the clipboard. Whether taking a screenshot to diagnose a problem, or just because you want to show something to a friend, this will come in handy.

    Fix those little mistakes Did you know you can undo almost any action? CTRL + Z is the ultimate hot key, and for sure you knew about it already, however note that undo doesn't just apply to typing. If you accidentally delete or move a file, you can hit CTRL + Z to bring it right back to where it was. In Chrome and Firefox you can also undo closing a tab using CTRL + SHIFT + T.

    Cycle through open windows Pressing ALT+TAB allows you to cycle through currently open windows. This makes switching back and forth between running processes quick and painless. If you want a more stylish method of cycling through open programs, Windows + TAB will do the job for you.

    Interrupt all processes CTRL + ALT + Delete is one of the most common PC shortcuts, and one almost everyone is familiar with. The important thing to note is that it interrupts all processes, including the one that is bogging down your system, which can mean the difference between needing to restart or not.



    Close the current program Typing ALT + F4 will close the program that is running. This is useful as it saves you time mousing over the "X" and clicking. People will often use this as a joke, telling you to press ALT + F4 to fix a problem. Don't fall for it unless you want to close what you are doing.

    Minimize all windows Sometimes you have a bunch of stuff running, and you want it all to go away so you can get to the desktop. Simply pressing Windows + D will minimize everything you have up, which will save you some time pressing the minimize button for each window. It should be noted that Windows + M offers similar functionality, but there is no undoing, so Windows + D is the more favorable approach.

    Open the task manager directly If you want to bypass the interrupt that happens when pressing CTRL + ALT + DEL and jump right to the task manager, typing CTRL + Shift + ESC launches it directly.

    Close the current window/tab Stick of moving all the way to that X button? Press CTRL + W and the current window will close. (Don�t do it now, or you will miss the rest of the tricks!)

    Bring up the system information window This is so much quicker than digging this out the traditional way... Just press Windows + Pause/Break and the System Information panel will be ready to go. This might be the only use for the Pause/Break key you will ever find, so enjoy it!



    Better multiple monitor control There are several useful keyboard shortcuts for controlling open windows on multiple monitors. Pressing the Windows Key + Arrow Keys will cause a window to quickly snap to each side of either monitor. Alternatively, hitting Shift + Windows Key + Arrows will cause the window to jump to the other monitor. Lastly, pressing Windows + P will allow you to quickly set up a second display or projector.

    Typing Tricks






    Typing Tricks

    Delete an entire word Instead of deleting a single letter, pressing CTRL + BKSP will delete the entire word behind the cursor. This makes deleting text quicker if you screw up a whole word.

    Move Cursor to beginning of the next or previous word Moving the cursor around manually while typing is a great way to make your work take longer than it needs to. To speed of the process, move the cursor around with keyboard shortcuts. To move it to the beginning of the previous word, use CTRL + Left Arrow. To move it to the beginning of the next word, use CTRL + Right Arrow. In OS X you can accomplish the same using the Option key. Making sub and superscript text If you need to make sub or superscript text (think exponents for superscript), press CTRL + = for subscript and CTRL + SHIFT + = for superscript.

    Paste plain text of what was copied When you copy text from any source, programs will usually copy any formatting that comes with it. To paste this as plain text, press CTRL + Shift + V instead of the standard CTRL + V, and the system will paste unformatted text. Note that many programs follow this parameter (Chrome, Firefox, etc.) but not all, particularly Microsoft programs like Word or Outlook.
    For those there's a few alternatives that go beyond copying and pasting in Notepad:
    1) CTRL + ALT + V will show a 'paste special' dialog box.
    2) CTRL + Spacebar will remove formatting in already pasted text.
    3) Download Puretext and choose a hotkey to always paste plain text with it.

    Windows Startup Services






    Windows Startup Services

    Reduce the number of programs running at startup If your PC is taking too long to boot, it�s probably because you have far too many programs running at startup. Reducing this is easy, it will make your PC launch noticeably faster and lighter upon first load. To change the items running at startup, go to Run using the hotkey Windows key + R, and type "msconfig." A small window will appear (see the screenshot below), select the Startup tab. From here you will be able to turn off many startup programs, which can shave several seconds (or minutes) off your boot time. (Note Windows 8 has moved this functionality to the Task Manager). Try to make sure you research what you are turning off as some processes might be needed by third party programs or drivers you have installed.

    WinDirStat (Windows Directory Statistics)






    WinDirStat (Windows Directory Statistics)

    Find/Delete large files wasting space A handy tool called WinDirStat (Windows Directory Statistics) can be used to easily find which files and folders are taking up the most space on your drive. From there, you can delete them and open up a ton of storage space.


    Problem Steps Recorder (System Logger)






    Problem Steps Recorder (System Logger)

    Use Problem Steps Recorder This handy tool automatically records any mouse clicks and takes screenshots for you. If you need tech assistance with your computer, go to Run by typing Windows + R, and then type "psr." Use the tool and by the time you are finished, you can send this information, neatly compiled automatically, to the person helping you with the issue. It will make the process of finding the problem much easier for them, which means you will be able to get your system up and running faster.


    God Mode






    God Mode

    Windows hidden "god mode" folder Windows offers a centralized Control Panel for all of the OS settings, which makes it easy for users to tweak everything from desktop background to setting up a VPN. To enter this mode, create a new folder with this exact name (copy and paste it): God Mode.{ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C}. The folder icon will change to a Control Panel-style icon, and you will be able to jump in and change all kinds of settings. Note: Don't try this on Windows Vista 64-bit as it's known to cause a reboot loop.







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